Monday, September 30, 2019

Hume’s Argument for Skepticism

Eryn Croft Professor Chudnoff PHI 101 Honors October 9, 2012 Hume’s argument for skepticism about induction states that we can use induction, like causation, to gain knowledge. We must rely on induction to draw conclusions in everyday life because it is the only resource we have to work with. However, we must realize the limitations of induction. Philosopher Karl Popper successfully undermines Hume’s problem of induction by proving that induction is not needed in science and that Hume’s argument is circular. Karl Popper argued that induction cannot be used in science.He says that induction can never be proven by experimentation. Science instead uses deduction by formulating theories and hypotheses. Science uses the method of conjecture and refutation. Hypotheses can never be proven or verified, but their success can be compared to other hypotheses. The usefulness of a hypothesis can be determined through deduction or predictions. Scientists test theories by makin g completely falsifiable claims. If there is nothing you can to do disprove the claim then the hypothesis is corroborated. A corroborated theory should not be considered true, merely accepted until better theories are discovered.Popper said that a theory can never be confirmed by observation. Where Hume argues that our theory originates from repetition, Popper argues that theory begins before repetition. Therefore, Popper argued that science does not even use induction. Karl Popper also argued that inductive reasoning leads to more inductive reasoning, leading to a circular argument. The problem of induction is that induction is creating the problem and â€Å"begging the question. † In order to avoid begging the question when using inductive reasoning, you might introduce a new inductive principle.By introducing a new inductive principle, you would have to make justification based on experience, leading to even more inductive reasoning. Hume argues that we need to justify ind uction, but Popper says it is not necessary because it leads to more induction and hence a circular argument. Popper also completely denies that induction is an a priori synthetic truth. An a priori truth is necessary and truth preserving, meaning it cannot be false. If induction is a priori, then it would not require justification based upon experience because it is already true.Since Popper rejects the traditional inductive model in science, he had to replace it with his own approach. Popper chose to accept William Whewell’s ‘hypothetico-deductive model. ’ He said that science does not use the inductive model, but instead uses the hypothetico-deductive model. The model begins by formulating a hypothesis that can be falsified by a test on observable data. We can then experiment or make observations to falsify the theory. Now the theory can be falsified or corroborated. If it is corroborated, then it will be accepted and used repeatedly until a better theory prov es better.In Hume’s view, observation comes before theory, whereas Popper’s view is that theory comes before observation. Popper believes that having an observation without first considering a theory is pointless. He argued that theories are only scientific if they are capable of being refuted by tests. As a result, Popper thought that falsifiability and testability were synonymous. One of Popper’s biggest arguments against Hume’s theory of induction is in his explanation of corroboration. A theory can only be corroborated if it does not contradict the basic, accepted statements.Even if a theory is falsified, we can still find many areas of corroboration. If a theory is highly falsified, then it is also highly corroborated. Needless to say, a falsified theory cannot also be considered corroborated. Merely, we can find corroboration through the steps taken to falsify a theory. Popper also acknowledges that corroboration is relative to time. He wanted to en sure that corroboration was not used to determine truth or falsehood. Although Popper successfully undermines Hume’s argument for skepticism of induction, there are also problems with Popper’s argument.Scientists always repeat experiments in order to ensure that the results are accurate and valid. An experiment cannot be proven correct unless other scientists replicate the experiment and achieve the same results. However, Popper argues that scientific knowledge is created by conjecture and criticism; but repeating experiments is not conjecture or criticism, it is induction. You would not repeat experiments for conjecture because it would be repetitive and unnecessary. Repeating experiments is in fact induction because it is allowing for the possibility that the conclusion is false.For example, if all of the Ibis we have ever observed are white, we can induce that all Ibis are white. This observation about Ibis is not conjecture because our past experiences offer suffic ient proof that all Ibis are white. Induction is based off of past experiences and repetitive observations. Therefore, scientists’ repeating an experiment is in fact induction, not conjecture or criticism. Scientific knowledge is an infinite cycle of inductive logic. Inductive logic continuously replaces one theory, with a better more inclusive theory that also relies on inductive logic. In addition, science does have theories that they think are proven.When scientists create a law, it is based on a theory proven through induction. For example, Isaac Newton was sitting under an apple tree when an apple suddenly fell next to him on the ground. Newton used his observation to conclude that gravity was the force that caused the apple to fall to the ground instead of merely floating in the air. Newton, by direct observation and repetition, proved the Universal Law of Gravitation. Popper argued that theories proven corroborated should not be considered true. But gravity can in fact only be proven true through induction, not conjecture.Newton did not attempt to continuously falsify gravity, but instead continuously prove gravity through causal relations. If the apple always falls to the ground and always has in the past, then we can use inductive reasoning to assume that gravity is the cause of the fall. Finally, scientists must use prediction as part of methodology in science. Popper says that theory comes before observation. Prediction is the majority of proposing a theory. We cannot use Popper’s ‘hyptothetico-deductive model’ without the methods of induction because probability is part of induction. Induction allows us to predict the outcome, and thus create a theory.Induction is included in Popper’s own models, which negates his claim that science does not use induction. Hume’s argument for skepticism about induction has many valuable points that allow us to conclude that induction can be a valuable tool in drawing conclus ions; we just have to be skeptical when using induction so we are not misled. Karl Popper successfully undermines Hume’s argument, but there can also be objections to Popper’s argument. As a result, it is best to combine Hume’s argument with Popper’s argument. First, we can accept Popper’s claim that deductive arguments are usually always rationally and logically true.For example, the word bachelor will always be accepted as someone who is unmarried. We can also realize that when using induction, there is always a gap between the premises and the conclusion. We must use probability and past observations to reach a conclusion and close the gap between premises. However, we cannot assume that Popper’s method of falsifying theories and corroborating theories to necessarily be correct. Hume believes that observation comes before theory, while Popper believes that theory comes before observation and is then proven false.Attempting to falsify stat ements is actually using inductive reasoning, so Popper is not absolutely rejecting induction. As a result, we cannot absolutely reject induction either. We must also accept that induction is definitely a priori, definitely truth preserving. It is a known fact. However, an a priori truth is based on probability and enquiring. For example, we cannot say bachelors are not married without enquiring about people we know to be bachelors. Thus, we still use induction and cannot rule it out in the scientific process. As a result, we can argue that science uses both inductive and deductive methods to reach conclusions.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Battle of Algiers Analysis Essay

The Battle of Algiers is a 1966 film that depicts the Algerian uprising against the French rule in the city of Algeria. The cause of the conflict in the film is the constant oppression felt by the Arab Algerians because of French colonialism. The injustice suffered by the native Arabs is shown in a number of ways: the living space difference between the Arabs and French, the difference in occupation, and the condescending attitudes the French have towards the Arabs. The populations of Algeria (Arab and French), are separated into two locations. The French live in a modern city with stores, buildings, lights, and automobiles many things that people take for granted. While the Arabs live in poverty compressed in a dark Casbah; an old walled in citadel. The French seem to have a well-established middle class while the native Arabs of Algeria have to struggle to survive. The difference in occupations by the natives and the French is also blatantly shown. The Arabs are mainly engaged in manual labor and only work with the French when they work under them – the servant of the police commissioner. On the other hand the French have a deep-rooted monopoly on all civil affairs. These differences show the injustice experienced by the native population but it is more apparent by the condescending and arrogant perception the French have toward the Arabs. Throughout the film the French try to persuade the native population to quell their rebellion by showing how French occupation has given them â€Å"civilization and prosperity.† But this is not true because of the difference in living conditions between the two races of people. Also throughout the film the French refer to the native Algerians as â€Å"dirty Arabs,† and â€Å"rats.† The dehumanization of the Arabs is also shown when Lieutenant-Colonel Mathieu compares the Arabs to â€Å"tapeworms.† It is ironic that the French officer refers to the Arabs as parasites when it is truly the French who colonized the country and exploits its resources. Lieutenant Mathieu also shows his disrespect for the Arabs when he names his counter measures to the Arabs rebellion â€Å"operation champagne.† (Alcohol is forbidden to Muslims) The film The Battle of Algiers shows the constant injustice to the native population by the foreign imperialists. The movie shows the difference in location, occupation, and respect that both people have for each other. The film also shows the constant racism of the French toward the native population and depicts the various reasons as to why the Arabs rebelled.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Betty White

Betty White was born in Oak Park, IL on January 17, 1922, daughter of Horace L. White, a traveling salesman and Tess Cachikis. She attended Beverly Hills High School from which she graduated in 1939. Her career started in the early 1940s with a modeling job. She also worked on a few radio shows including Blondie, The Great Gildersleeve, and This Is Your FBI and later, her own radio program name, The Betty White Show. In 1949 she debuted on television when she appeared with Al Jarvis on Hollywood on Television, she later hosted it on her own when Jarvis left. From 1952 to about 1977 she appeared on several television shows including Life With Elizabeth, Date With the Angels, Password, What’s My Line? , To Tell the Truth, I’ve Got A Secret, Match Game, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, and Pyramid. In 1977 she was given her own sitcom on CBS called The Betty White Show. (Not to be confused with her radio show with the same name. ) In 1987 she scored her second signature role of the St. Olaf, MN – native Rose Nylund, on The Golden Girls. The show was centered on four divorced or widowed women in their ‘Golden years’ that share a home in Miami. Although Betty has no children, she has been married three times. The first in 1945 to Dick Barker, a US Army Air Corps Pilot. This marriage was short-lived, only one year. The second to Lane Allen, a Hollywood agent, which only lasted two years also ending in divorce. On June 14, 1963 she married television host and personality, Allen Ludden. He proposed to Betty at least twice be fore she accepted. Allen died of stomach cancer on June 9, 1981. She hasn’t remarried since his death. Betty has won six Emmy Awards, three American Comedy Awards (including a Lifetime Achievement Award in 1990. ), and two Viewer’s For Quality Television Awards. She was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame and has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. On January 23, 2010 at the Screen Actor’s Gild Awards, she was awarded, by Sandra Bullock, the Life Achievement Award. She is also a pet enthusiast and animal health advocate who works with a number of animal organization such as the Los Angeles Zoo Commission, the Morris Animal Foundation, and Actors & Others for Animals. Betty is the president of the Morris Animal Foundation where she has served as a trustee of the organization since 1971. And she donated $100,000 to the Los Angeles Zoo in April 2008 alone. She was also just on Saturday Night Live over the weekend, and it was hilarious! I was laughing so hard.. So, having said all that. I’d say she is the coolest eighty-eight year old you could probabaly ever get a chance to meet. I hope she lives forever!

Friday, September 27, 2019

Process laboratories Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Process laboratories - Essay Example According to Humphrey (2008), the distillation process consumes much energy that may be very costly. There is, therefore, need to understand the types of columns that should be put in place as well as the factors that affect the distillation column operation. The equilibrium of the vapor that is in liquid form should also be determined to ensure that no vapor escapes from these chambers. Classification of distillation columns mainly depends on the composition of the mixture, the temperatures involved and the flow of the vapor in each chamber. These are the main variables that are used to describe the types of columns used during the distillation. During this process, the fractions of the mixtures are removed through boiling and condensation. These distillation columns are fed with these mixtures in a different manner and the sources used also differ. For instance if the feed is from a source at a pressure higher than the distillation column pressure, it is only piped into the column. Otherwise, the feed is pumped or compressed into the column. The feed may be a superheated vapor, a saturated vapor or liquid and in a case where the feed is a liquid at a much higher pressure than the column pressure, the valves will inflate and undergo a partial vaporization resulting in a liquid-vapor mixture as it enters the distillation column (Humphrey, 2008). Humphrey (2008) describes Rigorous modelling as the process by which chemical reactors are successfully separated to ensure that the end products are free from impurities. Rigorous modelling ensures that uniformity is maintained so at to come up with accurate results and that the end products can be used. Rigorous modelling facilitates the Distillation process by ensuring that all mixtures are successfully separated and it ensures that there are no disruptions during the distillation process. Humphrey (2008) outlines that distillation columns are very dynamic and this may

Thursday, September 26, 2019

International Human Resource Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

International Human Resource Analysis - Essay Example One of the most important responsibilities of the managers in any organisation is to create an effective organisational structure. One of the unique characteristics of this organisation is that, every individual is perfectly informed of his responsibilities and duties and the various processes of interactions and communication is very well synchronised (Business Insight, n.d.).Cognitive Capacity of the European Multinational CompanyIt is seen that as firms tend to expand their business internationally, managers face information processing demands. Multinational organisations are more equipped to identify and interpret critical information available all over the world. This is because operating in multiple shores has exposed them to a variety of foreign customer base, investors, and employee communities, cultural and sociological structures. Cultural heterogeneity is one area that this company has to take into consideration because it directly influences the company’s ability o f processing information, identifying environmental changes and reacting accordingly.Strategies of the European Multinational FMCG Company as a Multinational EnterpriseThere are several advantages that this company enjoys by having subsidiary branches in different parts of the world. Firstly, this company can achieve economies of scale and scope in the foreign country. This European FMCG company manufactures products in the domestic market and exports the good through agents in the foreign market.

Different Speaking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Different Speaking - Essay Example English language is viewed as the simplest subject which is based on experience and personal judgment. Perhaps, according to the character his skills in this language where never referred to as poor but he never performed best. Compared to maths and sciences, he always scored A’s in these subjects unlike in the English subject where he used to score B’s. Although math’s has only one specific answer while English answers are based on personal judgment and experience he still scored highest in maths. Consequently,Eliza Doolittle who comes from a poor back ground and who has a flower shop has a bad Englishdue to the cultural influence has to be helped by Henry to improve her language to become good. He is told how to improve her pronunciation to become more fluent in order to be able to communicate with different kinds of people. It is of great importance for Eliza to be told how to pronounce to English well so as to be serving different kind of peoples regardless o f their neither origin nor back ground. Henry has an inner motive or rather it can be called personal intentions while teaching Eliza how to pronounce well because he wants to marry her. It can be seen as early preparation because henry also does the act of teaching Eliza English because it is viewed as for the high class people. Concurringly; different ways of identity is intertwined in that how different people speak and the ways in which a person feels of their own tongues.The view that language is a symbol that brings those people who speak it together is clearly explained in the example given by Amy tan’s. Further the play defined home languages as those which are spoken back at home by families when they are together. Because of the persistence practice and speaking of English, the character has lost most of the traditional influence. After 250 years of colonization, the Spanish that is being spoken is different. The practice of adjusting vowels into single syllable and other times shift the stress into certain words is commonly practiced. Consequently, the biblical of a child hood is also clearly explained. During the early days of school the main character was the only black person; his other colloquies where white. He bring into the mind of the readers the scenario which one faces as a child when introduced to school when they were used to spending most of their time with parents and families. Eliza at the first time felt out of place as most of the attention was drown to him sarcastically by even the nuns who controlled the school. Though he come for a fair background, his parents had the ambitions and faith in whatever little thy got to run the family affairs.Elizalived in a world that composed of many different languages. His life style never changed at any given time. Outside their house was the public society and when he came back to the house was the private society. He used to interact with her friends outside the house how specked diffe rent language but when he return into the house, his mother and dad will always talk their mother-tongue which made it be called private society (Moragaand Gloria). Eliza argues that biblical supporter of today explains that those who did not get the opportunity to be taught by their family language missed a great deal. He explains that most of the time their family gather at night to practice what was referred to as their English. They could try to define different terms, pronounce them and even they would play with strange English sounds.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Small Business Management Evaluation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Small Business Management Evaluation - Essay Example Small business management entails precise analysis of how an entrepreneur provides the goods and services of his business in the market. It involves identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the business to be able to handle them in the production stage and ensure competitive advantage. An efficient management of a small enterprise requires an efficient marketing plan strategy that indicates the approach of the venture operation. The owner should establish the structures of the business that can effectively define the qualified professionals for the job. Operation of the small enterprise entails control of marketing strategies, sales, and advertising of the enterprise (Zimmerer & Scarborough, 2005, p. 12). Experts agree that marketing and sales represent the cornerstones of the starting business. Therefore, management of marketing sales is increasingly crucial for development and stability of the venture. In addition, the operation of a small enterprise requires various operation s kills, for instance, strong communication skills. Strong verbal and listening abilities are increasingly crucial in small enterprise. A sales manager must utilize proper words in an appropriate manner to pass the message accurately and clearly so as not to offend the clients. He must ensure effective customer care service to maintain customers for the productivity of the business. An employee motivation skill is crucial – the manager must device workers motivation strategies to ensure that workers operate towards attaining crucial successes. Time management skills enable the manager to operate under strict time schedules and ensure fixed deadlines are met in time (Pickle & Abrahamson, 2006). Conflict management skills – entrepreneurs should be wise and diplomatic to be able to mediate local disputes that occur regularly in the business. Mitigating the challenges as they appear enables the manager to prevent future challenges that may slow down or interrupt business ope rations. Negotiation skills, on the other hand, allow entrepreneurs to negotiate with clients and workers. Managing a small business needs a market target analysis because each enterprise has a target percentage of clients. Customer identification and target market identification is increasingly imperative to ensure a critical product campaign. In other words, promotion cost and the market campaign will be interrupted and expensive without customer and market identification, (Longenecker, Moore, & Petty, 2003, p. 23). Market identification eases the role of promotional plans creation. Quick financial investment is critical – economists agree that small business operators should keep a well-managed planned budget for marketplace campaign and adhere to that budget. Quick financial investment ensures various market mechanisms such as Television adverts and Banner adverts for the success of the venture.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

How Buy USA Helps Exporters Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

How Buy USA Helps Exporters - Essay Example The website has great presence across the country with offices in almost every region. This huge nationwide presence allows businesses from any region in the US to sign up to connect with potential clients. Buy USA gives business owners in the US a great opportunity to expand their businesses and put them on the international map. This expands the market for the businesses and enables them to maximize their profits with a lot of ease. It is a US commercial Service aimed at helping businesses find potential clients and meet new partners on the international level. Companies outside the USA can also find the website very useful in locating appropriate suppliers for their goods and services. Buy USA operates in about eighty countries across the world creating a very huge market for businesses to interact and share their products and services. Apart from connecting businesses to potential clients and business partners, Buy USA provides a wide range of services to both current and potential exporters, making it one of the leading commercial services in the country. The websites contains links to other equally essential business websites such as ( which has numerous resources about conducting an export business, and Commercial News USA ( which offers businesses the latest news in the international market. Both new and experienced businesses in exports can benefit a great deal from using Buy USA. With a wide range of connection in about eighty countries, established export businesses can use these connections from Buy USA to rapidly increase their operations on the international scene, while new businesses can have a good foundation to start from with a great prospect of future growth and expansion. Among the services offered to new businesses that want to start exporting i nclude provision of relevant business and legal information, business advice, and advice on international logistics. New businesses can use this information to strategically plan their entry in to the international market. Lack of information and legal huddles have been stumbling barriers for small businesses to sell their products on the international scene but the services provided by Buy USA have greatly simplified that. With offices in over one hundred cities in the country, Buy USA is dedicated to ensuring growth of small businesses through provision of information and business advice to set them off to the international market. Established businesses can also benefit from services such as the latest international news, new links to customers and business partners, legal assistance, trade show experiences among others. Using Buy USA is a great way to market your business on the international scene. Established businesses can use this easy way to market their goods and services to the outside the US and reduce their marketing expenses on physical marketing (Joshi, 2005). The website enables businesses to maximize their profits by exporting their goods and services to a ready market outside the US. Buy USA is one of the most trusted agencies helping businesses in America and its growing popularity is set to benefit so many businesses, both big and small. Buy USA serves businesses in diverse industries ranging from agricultural, service businesses, manufacturing among others. Any company can join in and locate other businesses in the same industry for partnership or business deals. Potential clients for Buy USA include small and medium enterprises who may not afford the

Monday, September 23, 2019

Social Media as a Business Strategy Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Social Media as a Business Strategy - Term Paper Example Social media also lets retailers create an awareness of their great products and followers might share their business with friends and family growing exposure to the business. Through social media, retailers can advertise specials to increase the reach for their special promotions. Social media also lets retailers get involved with the customers. Retailers may get feedback through comments by the customers and be able to meet the clients needs. Also with social media, retailers can target specific demographics to get their name to the group of people they want to see their products (Brown, 2012, pp 1) In the video, the instructor starts by letting people know that the facebook is where individuals go to spend time with friends. The video assures retailers that using facebook will help them reach a greater market. Facebook is where people build relationships with others that may eventually become customers. Find people with a similar mindset and connect them. You should send them a short message informing them why you want to connect. Add as many you could since some may or may not accept your friendship request. It encourages the client to use facebook since there is no investment required. It also guides retailers on how they can create a link to their website on their facebook profile. Retailers can also put a small note about who they are. The video starts by explaining the meaning of social media and how it has exploded to have great numbers of users. It assures the retailer that there is a huge audience on social media that they can take advantage to promote and even sell their products and services. The video explains that the social media platforms are different in how you connect with people. He points out that facebook is the leader for online marketing and plays a vital role in the success of retailers businesses. It informs the retailer that creating facebook page is a work in progress, which does not have to

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Change of Social Views on Mental Illnesses Essay Example for Free

The Change of Social Views on Mental Illnesses Essay In the past, mental illnesses were not widely accepted in society. Many times, upon the discovery of a mental illness in a child, the parents would send them to a mental institution to take care of them. Because of this, people with mental illnesses were often looked down upon due to the public’s unfamiliarity with them. Society’s ignorance has minimized over the years. The social views over the past 30 years have changed considerably towards people with mental disabilities due to socialization, by being involved in valued roles in society, and the evolution of medicine. The socialization of people with mental illnesses changed society’s way of thinking. The closures of mental institutions have contributed greatly to this. Sending a child with a mental illness to a mental institution to be raised, isolated them from society. By not being exposed to people that are different, it is difficult to widely accept and understand those differences. The more one is exposed to something, the more desensitized they are to it. For example, studies show that the more exposure to violence through the media and video games, the more desensitized the consumers are to the violence in real-life situations (Science Daily). Many times in society, one sees someone with a mental illness working in places that give them seemingly meaningless roles within that workplace (i. e. Jobs that do not contribute to society). By eliminating those meaningless jobs, people with mental illnesses have the opportunity to work among those without a mental illness. It will therefore increase contact, consequently increasing familiarization. The media has contributed greatly towards providing knowledge to the public about mental illnesses such as depression, autism, and bipolar disorder. By educating the public, it will cause less apprehension and misunderstanding of people with mental disorders. Marsha Gray of Community Living Mississauga points out that, â€Å"One of the things I find that is very bothersome is when people treat them like babies, like they can’t handle themselves. † This treatment is often a result of ignorance and often demeans the person whom they are speaking. It implies to them that people with a mental illness is unable to take care of themselves. Participation in meaningful activities that people without mental disabilities participate will increase the social skills that people with certain mental illnesses often lack. To build intimate relationships, for example, provides a chance to develop better self- esteem, and self-awareness that many people without a mental illness often take for granted as it develops naturally earlier on in life. As explained by Marsha Gray, â€Å"A social stigma is that people with mental illnesses cannot have a boyfriend/girlfriend or get married and have kids. It is encouraged to be engaged in those social settings to strengthen the social skills that they may not have had fully developed or may still need to learn. † The teaching of social norms is essential to the changing of society’s views. In the case of Autism, which is a â€Å"disorder that severely impairs development of a person’s ability to communicate, interact with other people, and maintain normal contact with the outside world,† there is the incapability to be aware of the needs and feelings of others. This may result in social deviancy. Social deviance is any behaviour that is different from the societal norm. With the incapability to be aware of the needs and feelings of others, people with autism may act in a way or do something that may offend others without realizing the consequences. This creates a stereotype that all people with a mental illness are never able to act according to social norms. This view can be changed by teaching what is right and wrong according to the social norms to prevent intolerance. There are certain valued roles in society that everybody plays. There is a stigma that people with mental illnesses cannot carry on the role as a parent, or as an employer. The evolution of medicine has played a large part in changing the views of society. The introduction of Lithium as a mood stabilizer for patients with bi-polar disorder was a medical breakthrough (NIMH). Because of this, people who are affected by bi-polar disorder are able to live a better, productive life in society with less extreme mood swings between mania and severe depression. In the past, electric shock treatment was commonly used to treat mental illnesses such as severe depression, and epilepsy. With new advancements in medicine, people with mental disorders are able to function better, and live lives that are more productive and fulfilling. With socialization, which is a result of closing down mental institutions, eliminating meaningless roles, and educating society, the views of the public have changed for the better because the increase of awareness and more exposure to those with mental illnesses. By providing centres that help teach people with mental illnesses basic life skills and how to act in ociety, it is getting easier for them to live their lives without constant scrutiny for the people around them. By creating ways for people with mental illnesses to be integrated and treated fairly has opened societies eyes and help society be more welcoming to those who are different and decreasing discrimination. The change of social views on mental illnesses have changed for the better, and will continue to do so because they see that all people affect by a mental illness want is to be no different than the normal John Doe, and to be treated as such.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Funeral Home Business Plan

Funeral Home Business Plan EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Death is an inevitable phenomenon. When one dies, it is inorder that he or she gets a good send off from friends and family members. Ohio, one of the greatest states in America has numerous towns with funeral homes. However, they do not offer an all round service for the disease. Unfortunately, Monroe, one of the towns in Ohio has no funeral home consequently citizens move to other towns, an expensive and time-consuming issue. This plan outlines the strategy by which a new funeral home, Dobrozsi will define and dominate a new perspective of funeral service provision in Monroe town, Ohio State and extend to the whole USA. It also focuses on the untapped opportunity in the cremation of the dead bodies. Up to now, very few funerals home are cremating the dead bodies. Change in worshipping has resulted into many people going for cremation instead of burial. The plan outlines how these opportunities will be made use of to increase the business scope and turn over there by increasing the profit margin of the business. It will also bring out how these services will be achieved in both the long and the short time. It explains how it shall use the competitive advantage to ensure that it is on top of the business. The plan also brings out the mission, vision, and the objectives of the business. It analyzes the mission of the business its vision and goals as well as the organizational culture. The business will be built on the philosophy of divided we fall united we stand this means that the business can not do a lone minus the other key stakeholders in the sector which include the families, employees, the owners and the environment at large. It describes the culture and what will be done to attain the culture of the business. On a different perspective, the plan describes the business to be started. It gives a brief summary of the business, the type of the business, which is Limited Liability Company. It clearly defines the shareholder who is the sole owner of the business. The plan analyzes the opportunity available through research and how the opportunities will be exploited. The plan identifies the very good and many good opportunities, the entities already in the market, how the incoming entity will take a competitive advantage over the other rivals and outwit them. It mentions the available competitors in the market. It goes ahead to discuss the marketing strategy and plan that the business would use. In this chapter, it discuses identification of the customers or consumers of the product will be identified and mechanisms to reach them. Market segmentation is discussed in this chapter with at least four different segments that the business will try to meet in its endeavors to provide the best quality diseases. It identifies the target markets out of these segments and a market strategy to reach to them. It discuses management and operations of the service business the entity is going to engage in to meet the needs of the customers. The competition in the business has been described vividly together with the different buying patterns experienced in the industry. The plan also identifies the competitive edge and the sales strategy that may be employed to attain the target sales. To conclude, the plan gives a financial breakdown of the required amount for financing the project. It the goes ahead to give a request for funding and the exist strategy. It closes by giving appendix. MISSION, VISION AND CULTURE Mission The mission of the Dobrozsi Funeral Home is to take the best care of the families and friends in the time of a lost loved one by providing the homely environment. The facilities involved will help accommodate the families and friends and the homes serenity will give much consolation to them. The funeral home will, through provision of such services grow to be the best funeral home not only in the town but also in the state of Ohio and to the larger USA. It will use these service provisions to be the most profitable home in the environs. Vision The vision of the funeral home is to be the first successful funeral home in Monroe with the best service. This will be attained through provision of the highest quality services with well the best facilities in the state, well trained, and experienced personnel at the most affordable rates. Culture In order to achieve the set mission and vision, the funeral home will develop a culture of a combination of healthy work environment, hard work, and family and customer service. The healthy work environment will be ensured through provision of better working equipment to the employees with good pay in turn promoting hard work amongst them. The main concern of the funeral home is to take care of families at the point of bereave thus, they will form part of our culture achievable through provision of better services and more especially customer service. COMPANY DESCRIPTION Dobrozsi Funeral Home a comprehensive type or mode of a funeral home with unique services and characteristics form the other funeral homes. It will handle services for all faiths, cremation, and pre-planning on a location of 45050 Monroe at Ohio State found on street 6305 Hamilton along the Lebanon Rd with operations of the business scheduled to begin on February 1, 2011. It is going to be the first funeral home ever in Monroe. The funeral home will be a limited liability corporation (LLC) and the owner will hold all its shares. Evan Dobrozsi, the owner of the funeral home is known for his well-managed entrepreneurial skills that have helped him start up businesses resulting into changing lives of most citizens. With this motivation, he has decided to start up a funeral home at Monroe. This is will be a funeral home of its kinds though with competition from Middletown, Hamilton, Franklin, and Liberty Township and West Chester area having other different funeral homes. Making it an exceptional funeral home will be the normal home looking buildings together with different chapels of different sizes. The home looking building will create a home environment for the mourners giving them a sense of hope while the different chapels sizes will be due to different service-size demands. Their main intentions are to help in the celebration of a life well lived by the deceased, provide consolation, and hope to friends and relatives through services in the chapels. In addition, it will ensure better customer service to take on board the families as part of the organizational culture. OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH State of Ohio has a population of about 11.5 million people being the seventh highest in the USA. The death rate of the USA citizens has been on the increasing note every year according to research conducted of late. In Monroe, the death rate has been significantly increasing with no funeral home around. The closest funeral homes are found in the other towns of the Ohio state, making people to move for long distances taking a lot of time before they get a funeral home.There is no funeral home in Monroe and the death rates are increasing considerably. This means that the cost of sending off a loved one is higher due to the additional costs incurred in transporting the bodies to and from the far funeral homes. It also leads to too much time wastage between the towns of the state and looking for a funeral home. Time lost is a very valuable resource and once lost can never be recovered. Many people in turn are getting disappointed and demoralized when they, in real sense as supposed to be consoled. Though there are funeral homes around, their services have been limited, slow, and expensive. Staffs in these funeral services lack the experience to offer the best funeral service. Whats more, they concentrate so much on the dead rather than on the people bereaved. There are no measures to console them. In addition, they do not take of other ways of sending off the loved ones such as cremation. The funeral homes having these facilities are very poor with inadequate number of employees some of whom do not have the skills to offer such services.Research has proved that many citizens are now going out of the state to look for a friendlier funeral home for the services of these loved one lost. Most of these funeral homes in any case, use the non-automated systems making service delivery ineffective. There is push towards cost, as people prefer funeral homes with low costs without compromising on the quality of the service offered. Majoring on these weaknesses of the competitors and the unavailability of the funeral homes in the state, Evan Dobrozsi created an opportunity and is about to venture into serious business. Dobrozsi funeral home will take up the opportunity by focusing much on the competitors weaknesses in order to strengthen them as well as taking the bigger opportunity of the lack of funeral homes in Monroe. In this case, it will enjoy the monopoly status within the region. It will bring services closer to Monroe citizens as compared to the others. MARKETING STRATEGY AND PLAN Identification of the customers In a bid to know the real customers of the funeral home, it is better to segment the market, dividing it in need categories. Most funeral homes if asked today will admit that they do not know their customers. American population is segmented in correspondence with generations making up the population. The funeral will hence concentrate on the generations. Statistics has proven that people age 23 and over are capable of making a purchasing decisions, thus our strategy will be to reach out to people of ages 23 and above. The funeral home will also target other faith that believes in the cremation of the dead. Most funeral homes have ignored this area for a very long time. Our better, high quality resources will enable us perform the cremation services to the bodies of the deceased who believe in the cremation. The most effective market among the segments id the Generation with a high demand and very little supply hence the funeral home will focus on the market. Market Segmentation Monroe has a family percentage of 76% with an average age of 39.7 years old. Our market segmentation will be based on the Americas division of people in terms of ages. We have realized that within these segments, generation as used by USAs demography, the purchasing power differs and focusing on all of them leading to a variety of market hence needs and services. The market divided according to decision makers on purchasing is has the following segments for focus: V.2.1 The GI Generation (born 1901-1924 and may be referred to us post World War I)   According to the USA demographics as at 2003, these are people who are now 76 years and above. In this business, it is the most active with a mortality rate of about 10.9% per annum. Due to this high mortality rate, they have to make funeral arrangements either by themselves for those not afraid or their caretakers will make for them. They in most cases have very little hope in living, more that is a fueling factor for their mortality. The new funeral home will take on this market with a lot of enthusiasm. V.2.2 The Silent Generation (born 1925-1945) With a mortality rate of 3.1%, most funeral homes tend to concentrate so much on them. Unexpectedly, the Boomers rather than the G1 have influenced them. Much of their lifestyles revolve mainly on the Boomers trying to much them. A reason that has made many funeral homes to concentrate so much in them is due to other causes of death other than natural attrition. It is considered the working generations with so much experience and many years of service. In effect, they are the richest and help the G1 and the Boomers meet their expectations of funeral services. V.2.3Boomers (also called the post World War II born 1946 through 1964)  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   Compared to the two generations, their mortality rate is quite low about 0.5%. However, the majority of this generation are considered very productive, innovative and more enthusiastic than the above two generations. As a result, they are engaged in planning services and especially for funeral arrangements. For our success, we cannot leave the generation since they will bring business when are attracted to good and high quality services. We win them they bring business. V.2.4 Generation X (1965-1980)   Amongst all the cohorts, this is the last and the youngest with a low mortality rate but may experience some changes due to change of behavior. They are so adventurous, a fact that is currently changing their mortality rates. They believe in themselves but are also very influential not necessarily in death but they also participate in the funeral arrangements of their parents and grand parents. Even though they have very little to do with funeral matters, they still influence decisions regarding the funeral arrangements especially if they have no relations in Silent and G1 but boomers. The Target Market for the home The target market of the funeral home will be the G1, Silent, and the Baby Boomers. The three cohorts have different needs, tastes, and potential very significant in the operations of the funeral home. Through the three cohorts, the funeral home will learn how to provide differential high quality services to the customers and the families involved. The other target will be the less tapped opportunity in cremation services especially around Monroe. Many funeral homes fear venturing into this type of product and we shall take advantage of this fact to help us have differentiated products to the customers. Marketing Strategy Our culture is to enhance the correlation between the employees, the customer and the management, the funeral home focus will to establish a link between the three parties for the success of the business. This will be achieved through provision of high quality services to the consumers at an affordable price, ensure that the employees have the best working environment consequently, high return for the owner. The chapels will be available for the families of the bereaved to offer service to the deceased and get consolation that he or she has started a new life for the believers. MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONS Having toured the funeral homes and seen the management of the homes below expectations. Dobrozsi funeral home will have the best management of human resources and the services delivered. It is going to gain a competitive advantage through provision of high quality services as compared to the rivals. It strategic management policies will ensure that it achieves the objectives, mission, and vision. The existing funeral homes are far from the people with low quality services and they have failed to offer-differentiated products to the varied needs and wants of the consumers. It is on this basis that the Dobrozsi funeral home will be managed in order to out do our competitors. From Portes five forces that affect the operation of the business, the funeral home shall develop better policies to enhance its effectiveness and avoid any further threats from the incoming entities in the same industry. Analysis of the service business to be implement In the event of death, a person has to be buried of cremated depending on the deceased culture and traditions. Since the remains of the deceased are never useful to the family members and relatives there is an option of a funeral home. Funeral homes universally offer some important services to the dead which includes Provision of a service for then deceased Ensuring that the body of the deceased is well preserved   and ready for viewing Moving of the body from the funeral home to residential home and to the burial site Provision of certain resources to aid the funeral such as casket, urns, remembrance products Providing immediate burial minus a service depending on the culture an tradition of deceased Providing cremations service not common to many funeral home Competition and Buying Patterns in the market People would choose a funeral home first for convenience purposes, service to the family and reputation derived from the funeral home. The biggest percentage goes for convenience in terms of location and costs. Monroe has not had a funeral home since time immemorial. Having identified the buying pattern, customers will go for the easiest and fastest option, we are going to launch our funeral home at Monroe to take up this opportunity. Freedom of worship has also changed the buying pattern. Many people are now joining the religious groups of their choices. Consequently, there has been an increased demand for cremation, an are not well exploited by the funeral homes. People are also becoming too religious. For this reason we are going to have different chapels of different sizes and we shall provide cremation to have competitive advantage not only over the rivals in the market but also for those who may want to join the industry. Competitive Edge Dobrozsi Funeral Home is one of the best homes to be started in Monroe. It will provide caring atmosphere with facilities to ensure a person is given a dignified send off by the home. It ensures that the remaining family members and friend are consoled in order to have the faith that one day they will meet again. The upcoming funeral home will explore its competitive edge to offer these values and functions and help promote the living standard of the employees. Its competitive edge is the fact that many have not ventured into the business in Monroe as well as the cremation, which is offered by very few funeral homes. It will uphold the values and purposes of a burial or a funeral for that matter. The values and the purpose of a funeral gathering is to appreciate someone for the life well lived, wish him a farewell and support the ones left behind with consolation. Sales Strategy In meeting our sales, a strategy has been laid down to ensure its achievements. The home will bring on board executive directs sales agent who will employ the process of personal selling to approach customer, present the product, convince the customer to purchase the product and close the sales. The sales executive may then request for more leads from the customer. Once a sale is closed, the customer will be like part of us. Through him, we shall reach other hundreds of customers out there VII. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS AND PROJECTIONS This analysis and plan aims at getting a loan of $ 184,000 with the total net worth of the business being. Our start-up expenses of $32,500 and asset purchases of $151,500 are to be financed by loan Start-up Funding Amount in $ Start-up Expenses to Fund 32,500 Start-up Assets to Fund 151,500 Total Funding Required 184,000 Assets Non-cash Assets from Start-up 58,500 Cash Requirements from Start-up 121,250 Additional Cash Raised Cash Balance on Starting Date Total Assets 235,300 Liabilities and Capital Liabilities Current Borrowing 184,000 Long-term Liabilities Other Current Liabilities (interest-free) Total Liabilities 184,000 Capital Planned Investment Owner 58,500 Investor Additional Investment Requirement Total Planned Investment 58,500 Loss at Start-up (Start-up Expenses) (32,500) Total Capital 26,000 Total Capital and Liabilities 210,000 Total Funding 242,500 VIII. FUNDING REQUEST AND EXIST STRATEGY Starts up costs of a funeral home are much higher than businesses of the same size. The costs of cars are very high and the small amount of equipment that is needed is high. All these items are things that you have to have to operate a funeral home aside from the facilities. All the things that are in this list are things that are absolutely required and are not things that you can do without. To have a funeral home you must be able to embalm a body and make-up which you need tables for. The embalming table is stainless steel which is what makes it so expensive. You must have a van and a cot to make removals. Another big thing is the cost of the hearse with is probably the biggest expense cause it has to in a since be custom made. The last large expense is a cooler to keep bodies in that arent embalmed or are going to be cremated We are therefore requesting for a funding of $ 184,000 which we are sure to pay in the next one year that is a period of 12 months. The amount is to assist us get the required material for the start of the business. We shall repay the amount together with the interest required. On a straight line basis without the inclusion of the interest rate we are sure to pay the following amount: Amount borrowed $ 184,000 Period of repayment 12 months Monthly repayment 184,000 / 12 months = $ 15,333.33 per month Once the amount is paid up we shall be glad to be a member of the bank. All our proceeds shall be used through your good bank. We therefore humbly request for the financial assistance to help us achieve the objective and promote the lives of the people of Monroe by giving the family members of the deceased a good consolation and ensuring that the deceased is given the best send off by the people he or she loved. We are proud to be associated with you and we look forward to doing business. APPENDICES Appendix 1: Financial Requirements Appendix 1a): The financial requirements of the firm visa a viz the actual that we be used up during the implementation Item Cost Estimate/Actual Start-Up Expenses Accountant Fees 1500 Expensed Equipment 2500 Financial Institution Fees Identity Set/Stationary 3000 Insurance 5000 Legal Fees 10000 Licenses/Certificates/Permits 1000 Marketing Materials (cards) 2000 Payroll (with taxes) 2000 Professional Fees Other 2000 Travel Utilities 1500 Web Fees 2000 Other Total Start-Up Expenses 32500 Start-Up Assets Cash Balance for Starting Date Equipment 25000 Furniture Fixtures 30000 Leasehold Improvements Cars Rent Deposit Signage 3000 Utility Deposit 500 Other Total Start-Up Assets 58500 Total Start-Up Requirements 151500 Appendix 1 b): The required assets Item Quantity Cost Equipment Hearse 1 100000 Removel Van 1 35000 Embalming Table 1 2000 Removal Cot 1 1300 Prep Table 1 900 Embalming Pump 1 800 Church Truck 1 1000 Prep Stuff 1 2500 Cooler 1 8000 Other Costs Start-Up Investment-TOTAL $242500 Cash Reserve $121250 Total Start-Up Investment + Capital Reserve $363750 Appendix II: The Work plan and how the activities will be done PROJECT JANUARY MARCH APRIL JUNE JULY SEPTEMBER OCTOBER DECEMBER Drawing the plan Collection of the materials Seeking for funding Purchase of the assets Building project inception Doing a market research for determination of the demand level Getting the required people in time to begin business Registration of the company Appendix III: Statistics found out on the marker of the Monroe State Series 1 represents the Mortality rate of the Boomers Series 2 represents the Mortality rate of the Silent generation Series 3 represents the Mortality rate of G1 Generation

Friday, September 20, 2019

Custom Essays: Hamlet’s Ghost -- GCSE English Literature Coursework

Hamlet’s Ghost      Ã‚  Ã‚   The plot development of Shakespeare’s tragedy, Hamlet, revolves about the initial apparition of the Ghost and his revelations to the hero of the play. Gunnar Boklund’s   â€Å"Judgment in Hamlet† introduces the Ghost in terms of the dilemma of the protagonist:      It is a commonplace to refer to Hamlet’s â€Å"dilemma† and a critical problem to explain in what this dilemma consists. A natural way to come to terms with the problem is obviously through the character that forces the dilemma upon Hamlet, that is to say, the Ghost. This is a particularly attractive approach, since it promises to bring the findings of modern research into Elizabethan demonology to bear directly upon the question of the nature of the Ghost and its message. It was apparently generally believed, among Catholics and Protestants alike, that a ghost could be dispatched into this world by either God or the devil, and consequently it became the duty of the receiver of its command to test it conscientiously before acting upon it. This is what we see Hamlet do when, in spite of his immediate conviction that it is an honest ghost he has seen, he arranges a trial of its veracity in the form of the play within the play. (117)    Thus is explained the rationale of the â€Å"play within a play† which is seen as necessary for the climax of the drama. To begin consideration of the Ghost, let it be said that the Ghost makes his appearance even before the play has opened. Marchette Chute in â€Å"The Story Told in Hamlet† describes the ghost’s activity prior to the opening scene of Shakespeare’s tragedy:    The story opens in the cold and dark of a winter night in Denmark, while the guard is being changed on the battlements of the royal castle o... ...: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Shakespeare’s Women. N.p.: n.p., 1981.    Rosenberg, Marvin. â€Å"Laertes: An Impulsive but Earnest Young Aristocrat.† Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. from The Masks of Hamlet. Newark, NJ: Univ. of Delaware Press, 1992.    Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1995.    West, Rebecca. â€Å"A Court and World Infected by the Disease of Corruption.† Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. from The Court and the Castle. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1957.    Wilkie, Brian and James Hurt. â€Å"Shakespeare.† Literature of the Western World. Ed. Brian Wilkie and James Hurt. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1992.   

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Grapes Of Wrath Essay -- essays research papers

The Grapes of Wrath   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  John Steinbeck wrote The Grapes of Wrath, a remarkable novel that greatly embodied the entire uprisal of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl in the 1930’s. The usage of imagery and symbolism help to support his many different themes running through the course of the novel. His use of language assisted in personifying the many trials and tribulations which the Joad family, and the rest of the United States, was feeling at the time. This was a time of great confusion and chaos because no one really knew what the other was going through, they were all just trying to hold their own. To display the many sides of the depression Steinbeck developed the use of intercallorie chapters, and he also manipulated them to posses many other functions; all of these adding to the many images and themes which he was insistent upon getting across to his readers, using a vast collection of techniques. One of Steinbeck’s favorite uses of language was the use of imagery. He used colors, animals, and people as his main sources of imagery. The most reoccurring images of color were red and grey. He used this to develop the reader into sensing the harshness, and yet the incredible dullness of the scenery, using red as the sun and grey as the land, at times interchanging. â€Å"In the grey sky a red sun appeared, a dim red circle that gave a little light, like dusk; and as that day advanced the dusk slipped back toward darkness, and the wind cried and whimpered over the fallen corn†(5). Steinbeck used his color imagery to display the almost separation of the two different worlds between the land, symbolically and literally.â€Å" †¦the grey country and the dark red country began to disappear under a green cover†(3). His use of red and grey represent the slow wearing away of the land and its people. â€Å"The surface of the earth crusted, a thin hard crust, and as the sky became pale, so the earth became pale, pink in the red country, and white in the grey country.† This shows the way the earth was washed out and dimming under the abuse of the cotton farming, which stripped the land. Later in the story, Steinbeck continued his use of simple color imagery, typically describing the sun, dust and light. â€Å"†¦there was a layer of dust in the bed, and the hood was covered in dust, and the headlights were obscured with a red flour. The sun was setting w... ... Joads were taking to California was similar to the journey that the Jewish people made to the promised land, however California did not hold the opportunity that was promised, and many people left. Jim Casey is often compared to Jesus Christ, leading his 12 deciples to the promised land. For one he did not lead the family-Ma Joad did. He also was not leading them out of a belief in himself of anyother mystical idea. He just joined them for the ride. Another thing is, is that although Jim Casey died for his cause he did not preach anything remotely similar to Jesus Christ, unless that was the point-he was supposed to represent a neo-Jesus, and did not do his pilgrimage the same way. Basically, while their were many symbols along the way for the story to be taken as a allegory, it seems silly that it would be due to the fact that it would take away the powerfulness of the book. Many readers do not want to have to take the journey of the Joad’s and flip it all around and rui n it so that it becomes allegorical to others. It seems better and much more effective to society that The Grapes of Wrath is an allegory to life’s journeys and is a powerful representation of the time period.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Dangers of Darkness in Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness :: essays research papers

Webster’s dictionary defines darkness as a space â€Å"devoid or partially devoid of light.† Throughout Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrad uses darkness in many ways, as this book truly defines its title. This also develops Conrad’s theme, which is the presence of darkness in both ourselves, and in the world we live. Darkness symbolizes the unknown, the concealed, and the feared. Darkness can hide many hurtful, fearful, and savage things. Several times in the novel readers can see characters afraid of the darkness and the unknown behind it. One of these is when the men aboard the steamboat, which is heading into dense fog, hear a piercing scream. The men are especially frightened because the source of this scream is unknown because of the darkness. Darkness is also shown throughout the book as an abstract term referring to the absence of morals in a society. The â€Å"darkness† of the country conceals the brutal actions of the region. This is especially evident in Kurtz’s most barbaric act, the placement of human heads on poles that surround his house. Conrad tries to portray to readers that the fearful â€Å"darkness† can also be something that is not strictly literal, but instead something spiritual. Lastly, the tendency toward darkness in all humans is evident in this book. First the company of men is willing to go into the darkness of the jungle because of the potential of wealth. Secondly, this is portrayed when the men see the sunlight, and instead of heading towards it they decide to head back into the darkness. Conrad is showing readers that human’s natural tendency is to head towards the darkness instead of light. This is summed up beautifully at the end of the book when the narrator says the boat is headed â€Å"into the heart of an immense darkness.† This shows that from beginning to end humans have that natural tendency to head into the â€Å"darkness.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Inventory system introduction Essay

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Nowadays, computer-based system is commonly found in the business world. This is because of the benefits it gives in the respective companies. In addition, an upgraded system in this point of time is a big advantage due to the great deal of the competition in our economy. Technically, logical and analytical skills will certainly improve after this study. Hopefully, this study will also be character-building and still upon the importance of teamwork and maintaining harmony within the group which will be quite handy in the corporate world. One of the disadvantages of not having a computerized Inventory System is that, there a chance of inaccurate data record in a manual inputting of inventory records. Also there is a delay in updating records due to manual process. Miguel’s Home Merchandise is a growing company with an increasing size of customers. And so, today the company needed a computerized based program that can handle such difficulties. 1.1 Statement of the Problem 1.1.1 General Problem How to develop an Inventory System with Point of Sale for Miguel’s Home Merchandise that will improve the current process of inventory, lessen the time consumed in categorizing, pricing, monitoring of the items and customer’s transaction? 1.1.2 Specific Problems How to develop a module that will provide an inventory and transaction system for the company? Currently, the company is still using calculator to compute the total amount of items purchased by the customers. For this reason, there are some instances where error occurred using this manual way of computation. How to develop a module that will monitor the reorder and critical level of company’s items? Since the company is conducting an inventory every week by manual record, there are some instances where not aware on what are those items are in reorder or critical level. How to develop a module that will generate fast and accurate reports? Currently the company is still using manual record on each report, there are some instances where the company is too busy to monitor sales reports and it consumes most of their time. 1.2 Current State of the Technology Miguel’s Home Merchandise was using a manual method of listing their items. They call their suppliers to order some items or they went to their suppliers to buy items and upon reaching the store they count the items one by one and write it down in a record book. And when the time comes to put it into display they just attached a sticker for the price in every item. And if there is a sudden change in price of the items, they just erase the records in the record book and update the price. Staffs like Manuel Ciyab create manually reports, check their inventory weekly and report it to the owner, Mrs. Miguel. The existing customer transaction is just a typical buying; the customer arrived, walk through the store and look in the shelves for the item they want and the staff will assist the customer and walk with her/him to look for the items. And eventually after paying the items, the staff uses a calculator to compute the total price and issue a receipt by writing it in a formatted paper, filling up the date, total price, change etc. At the end of the day the staff will list all items and compute for their sales. Again, using a calculator and writing it in a record book. The current system was done manually, their encounter some problems that occur in the process. Considering the problem cited, the proponents intended to develop an inventory system with point of sale that would help the company for the fast monitoring of items, accurate reports and fast customer transaction. 1.3 Objectives 1.3.1 General Objective To develop an Inventory System with Point of Sale for Miguel’s Home Merchandise that will improve the current process of inventory, lessen the time consumed in categorizing, pricing, monitoring of the items and customer’s transaction. . 1.3.2 Specific Objectives The proposed system aims to achieve the following objectives: To develop a module that will provide an inventory and transaction system for the company.  The proposed system will allow the user to input items data electronically for more secure and faster data retrieval and count all items accurately while the customers will just go to the cashier and because of the search feature of the computerized system it will be easy to find if the item is available. And the staff will compute the total amount using the proposed system and the issuing of receipt is already printed. To develop a module that will monitor the reorder and critical level of company’s items. The proposed system has a module on which items are monitored if there are in reorder or critical level, and the system will automatically notify the user if there are any items that reached its critical level using color coding. To develop a module that will generate fast and accurate reports. For computing reports such as daily sales report the system provide a module that will generate necessary report to determine product master list and sales report. The time will lessen since all the computing is done in the system.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Interpersonal Communication Essay

First off, let me welcome you to a brand new world of love, care family bonds and holy matrimony. My name is Stacey Lindsey, and I am going to give you an idea of interpersonal communication is going to affect your lives, and the skills/knowledge you will need in order to find yourselves together and still happy 50 years down the road. Marriage today seems, to some, to be a fly-by-night operation. I stand here today writing you to let you know that this does not have to be the case. If you two are willing to take suggestions and follow a simple set of rules based on a healthy relationship built on proper interpersonal communication, then you have a chance to find yourself happy and in love for some time to come. Communication is the keystone to any strong relationship. In order to truly understand ourselves and our loved ones, we must first understand the way that we interact in our day to day intermingling. Explain the principles and misconceptions in effective interpersonal communications. In the text book Making Connections: Understanding Interpersonal Communication (Sole,2011), we are shown that there are six basic principles at plat regarding Human communications. First, we are told that communication is symbolic. Second, we are shown that communication is shared meaning. Third, communication is shown to be a process. Fourth, the argument is made that communication is culturally determined. Fifth, we are shown that communication occurs in context. Sixth, we are told that communication is purposeful. While these principles serve to explain the basic meanings behind how communications work, there will always be a basic misconception about how and what communication is meant to be. It is important, though, to remember that a basic set of principles guides us through understanding interpersonal communication. The use of symbols is widely believed to be what makes human language unique. A symbol can be anything that conveys a meaning, and it can be written, spoken, or non-verbal. Drawings, photographs, and music can be symbolic. Even objects such as homes, automobiles, clothing, and jewelry can be symbolic (Sole, Sn. 1.3, para 2.). Human beings have a unique ability to make almost anything stand for something, giving an almost endless ability to communicate. The fact the communication is shared meaning is the driving force behind the ability to visualize stories and information through shared language and symbols of our world. Our perception will directly affect how a story is communicated, so we must see these shared meanings as abstraction. Communication is a lifelong process by which we gain knowledge and experience, with which we sharpen our communication skills. Because this is an ongoing thing, we must continually work to maintain and build on the relationship we form. Communication is culturally determined, meaning that our cultures, or the way we eat, sleep, live and understand the world, affect the way we communicate. Many white americans idealize a dispassionate and logical mode of debating and problem-solving. In mediation this is expressed in maxims such as â€Å"separate the people from the problem† and the use of caucuses to cool down emotions (Fisher and Ury, 1981). In Black and White Styles of Conflict (Kochman, 1981) it states that African Americans construe a difference in communication style differently, and that â€Å"Blacks call this constraining mode of behavior fronting, and they generally regard negatively situations in which it is necessary to front†¦ All blacks consider fronting to be a strain†. Our ability to rationalize, our willingness to work things out, and our likely hood of finding common ground with someone we disagree with is greatly affected by our culture. Communication must be understood as a context driven subject. Where, when, and how we come to communicate is going to drive how we interact with others. Things such as our physical state, our mental well being, and the emotion surrounding a subject are sure to contribute to how we appreciate a communicated subject. It is important to remember that communication is purposeful. We do not communicate simply to make noise, but instead to share meaning and connect with others. Our needs are influenced and met through interaction with the outside world. These principles of communication guide us to understand the meaning and importance of human interpersonal communications and how we can communicate properly. There are misconceptions in interpersonal communication, though. The belief that we communicate only for our own good and that we will be unable to understand the meaning behind something without the proper context is wrong. We will find our way as we need be. Identify the barriers to effective interpersonal interactions. Competence, language, perception, and information are all barriers that can get in the way of effective interpersonal interactions. Any of these four barriers can cause an issue so great that effect communication is made impossible. All four parts must be met satisfactory if clear and concise communication is to be had. An article in the periodical Supervisory Management (1991) a situation is given that shows the proper way to get past barriers of effective interaction. â€Å"In order to make certain that you cover all aspects of a subject, you must take the time beforehand to plan what you want to say. In the case of an unsatisfactory employee, for instance, it’s not enough to know that his work has been slipping. Think about when you first noticed the problem, list examples of the problem on a piece of paper, and be prepared to explain what changes in the quality of performance you are requiring. Mentally go over the employee’s work history for the past few months to see if you can determine when they occurred. Pinpoint episodes that caused problems in the employee’s performance and prepare yourself to discuss them. Put yourself in the employee’s position and anticipate how he will react to what you are saying. Then try to prepare a proper response†. (Para. 4). All four barriers are avoided using simple tools. Competence, or having the knowledge to understand the subject, is taken care of by planning what you will say. The language section is covered by the same effect by known what you will say and how you will explain your thoughts. Your personal perception is a tough barrier to breach, but by listing examples of the particular problem on a piece of paper and taking that aspect of perception our of play, you effectively move forward. Lastly, the information that has been complied in order to present a clear and concise explanation of what is needed and how it can be done will avert any issues of this becoming a barrier. Averting the barriers that get in the way of interpersonal communication in its top form is going to give you a stronger relationship and a better avenue to share and learn about each other. Not allowing these four barriers to get in the way of your communication will leave an open line of communication to share your feelings and understandings of the world with one another. Recognize how words have the power to create and affect attitudes, behavior, and perception. Words are very powerful things. By uttering just the simplest word we can bring division and even hatred into a relationship. The miscommunication of language and can lead to misunderstandings, loss of clear communications, and at times, the end of a relationship completely. This does not have to be true. Understanding that words have power, and they can create and affect attitudes, behavior, and perception is a tool that will allow you to communicate to the best of your ability by understanding the power of your language. A word has the ability to represents can create a myriad of different emotions, feelings, and reactions. By choosing to use a word in one way, we find that we have affected another persons attitude, behavior, or even their perception of us/ ourselves. I, personally, noticed at a young age that my use of certain words in certain ways brought forth great emotion in the people around me. An example of this is the word â€Å"faggot†. I have never, and do not expect to ever, had an issue with homosexuals or their personal lifestyles. My use of the word described a person who did something extremely silly that I found myself unable to understand. Certain people would react angrily to the word, while others would accept it as funny and laugh away the misunderstanding around it. Sole (2011), tells us â€Å"Negative connotations often act s triggers to derail your interpersonal communication. We all have trigger words that create an immediate emotional reaction when we hear them† (Sect. 4.1). By understanding how we interact with one another, and how our words, and not only our actions, effect those around us as well as ourselves, we stand a chance of finding away to communicate effectively. Define emotional intelligence and its role in effective interpersonal relationships. In the text of Making Connections: Interpersonal Communications (Sole, 2011), emotional intelligence is defined as â€Å"The capacity to understand, communicate, and manage emotions and feelings and to understand and respond to the feelings of others† (Glossary), Emotional intelligence plays an integral role in effective interpersonal relationships. Without the skills mentioned we may never have a true understanding of what makes our loved one tick. We, as human beings, are a complicated lot. Our emotional make up is complicated, our ways of communicating are affected by an array of outside sources, and we can be tough to keep up with sometimes. If a husband is unable to sense a change in his wife’s emotional state due to something able to connect and communicate properly in order to find out what may be bothering her, he is doomed to fine himself alone, or worse, in an unhappy relationship. The ability to understand, communicate, and manage emotions will give a husband or wife the ability to make it through life a bit easier, as life will never be easy itself. Evaluating appropriate levels of self-disclosure is satisfying to a stable relationship. The quality and quantity of marital communication and disclosure had been linked to the level of perceived satisfaction within the marriage. Self-disclosure is one type of marital communication that has been identified as a key factor in this development. Although quality communication is defined differently from study to study, most agree that happy marriages and self-disclosure go hand-in-hand. Sharing private feelings, fears, doubts and perceptions is essential to self-disclosure and allows reductions with your mate will be. Once you mutually determine that you want to establish long-term relationship, disclosure continues and over time leads to more personal topics. Permitting one’s true self to be known can be difficult, yet to build a solid rapport in marriage it is imperative. The Risk of Self- Disclosure While self-disclosure can have many positive benefits; it can be risky, and can have negative consequences, true enough. Sharing information about yourself makes you vulnerable, and van be used to take advantage of you. However, it is the only way you can learn, feel, grow and have a meaningful, successful marriage. Broadly speaking, empathy as a form of self-disclosure, gives us the ability to feel for another person, to imagine oneself in the same situation, enduring those same experiences and emotions. Empathy is also something you both will have to learn; you must have the mental flexibility to put yourself in the shoes of the other person. Effective Interpersonal communication is often based on empathy, since interpersonal communication skills refer to how we interact with each other on a personal level. Whenever two people care about each other, as you do, they use many different interpersonal communication skills. Empathy is one of the most crucial skills that we have and can use on a daily basis. Listening with empathy can help you express yourselves and feel heard, as well. Learn to improve your self-disclosure. Empathetic listening will not only give you the ability to put yourself in another person’s shoes, but also provide a supportive listening environment. Neuroscientist Jean Decety, believes that empathy is even a mirrored emotion and that empathy is one of those human impulses that defy easy explanation. It gets entangled with sympathy or compassion or commiseration; it submerges into altruism. Empathy requires emotional control-the capacity to distinguish yourself from the other person, a gift invaluable to experiencing closeness in a relationship such as marriage. Describe strategies for managing interpersonal conflicts. Conflicts are sure to arise in any good, healthy relationship. Though this may seem odd, it is part of effective interpersonal communication. We must be able to discuss our feelings and needs, and at times, we have to argue about the importance of these needs or emotional situations. By listening, understanding and communicating effectively, you will find yourself in a place of understood emotions and happy campers. As a newlywed couple you must remember that life can only be as good as you make it. If you are unable to communicate effectively, you must look at the current situation and see if it is caused by personal error or a misunderstanding of how a relationship is supposed to work. If effective interpersonal communication seems to be impossible, maybe it is time to take steps towards a better understanding of what effective communication is, and maybe it is time to reexamine your relationship as it stands. To find your selves in a relationship that is healthy, open, full of free and exciting communication is the goal here. Good luck, and good night. Reference Fisher, Roger and Ury, William (1981) Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. New York: Penguin Books, 1981 Kochman, Thomas. Black and White Styles of Conflict. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. 1981 Sachs, R. (1991). Overcoming the Obstacles to Communication. Supervisory Management. Vol. 36, Iss. 7; Pg.4 (found through ProQuest at Ashford. edu) Sole, K. (2011). Making Connections: Interpersonal Communication. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Ashford Student Library ProQuest Shared Talking Styles: Herald New Last Relationships

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Critical Listening Paper Essay

Social psychologist Amy Cuddy presents a formal demonstrative speech on body language. The general purpose of the speech was to inform. Cuddy’s attire was formal. She was dressed in black high heels, black stockings, a black skirt, a long thin black cover-up, and jewelry—a heavy necklace and hoop earrings. The speaker’s introduction definitely captured my attention. She started her speech by stating that she would offer a â€Å"free no-tech life hack† additional to a request that she made to the audience; this definitely draws the audience into what she is about to say. The speaker engages with her audience by asking them to perform a certain act, while also enticing them with a free life-hack. It sure did enhance the speaker’s credibility because she is offering some kind of valuable advice to her audience. The audience is generally older in age (late 20’s & up), there is a mix of males and females, and there seems to be a good diversity in races. Most are dressed semi-formally if not formally. The speaker definitely adapts her remarks to the audience by catering to the characteristics of their demographics ex. Relating her topic to job interviews. The speaker establishes rapport with her audience through constant eye contact, communicative conversational tone, fluency, hand/arm gestures, and personal stories. Cuddy’s speech was about body language and how we see ourselves. The speaker’s thesis statement was the following: Fake it until you become it. The main points for this speech are the following: our non-verbals govern how we think and feel about ourselves (Power-posing), our bodies change our minds (Testosterone/cortisol levels), and our bodies change our behavior and our behavior changes our outcomes. The speaker uses the topical organizational pattern to deliver her speech. It is definitely appropriate for the topic and speaking situation. Her organization makes it easier for the audience to logically interpret and understand the important points that she is trying to make. Additionally, the speaker uses language to improve the effectiveness of her speech. She is very conversational which exerts the audience to be more alert, responsive, and empathetic to her. The speaker’s speaking voice is not monotone and she definitely uses effective vocabulary in her speech as well—not too difficult, but not too plain.  Additionally, the Cuddy uses the right amount of vocal expressions. Amy Cuddy mainly used images to support her material. Her short clip and images worked extremely well in supporting her main points/argument. Besides the effective images on her slideshow, the speaker’s use of her personal experiences and stories definitely supported her points. She establishes her credibility by telling a story that ultimately establishes her educational level; Cuddy is a professor at Harvard University. Cuddy concludes her speech by reiterating her thesis statement and reinforcing the speech’s general and specific purpose. She ends her speech with a call to action. The conclusion that she makes calls the audience to 1.) try power-posing and 2.) to share the science. The speaker provides closure to show the audience that her speech was finished with her call to action and thanking the audience. The speaker’s use of non-verbal elements of delivery was outstanding. Her arm and hand gestures were appropriate, she maintained meaningful eye contact/engagement throughout her entire speech, and her overall body language to her audience was one that really entices the audience to pay attention and be engaged. The speaker used presentation aids, and in my opinion, they were extremely effective and engaging. Moreover, it is clear to see that the speaker’s presentation aids were adequate supporting material through the audience’s reactions ex. Laughter, applause. In my opinion, the strongest part of the speech was the speaker’s story about her personal experience. This was part of the body of her speech and it was her supporting evidence for one of her main points. She used emotion to appeal to her audience about her tragic accident and her journey to recovery and â€Å"faking it until you become it†. This was the strongest part of the speech because it is memorable and got a strong reaction out of the audience. Not only that, but it was great supporting material for the speaker’s thesis. On the other hand, there weren’t any weaknesses to Cuddy’s speech necessarily. If I had to choose one weak point however, it would be the transition from the body to the conclusion. This was the weakest part of the speech because it was difficult to concretely establish the concluding paragraph of the speech. I could not tell whether the ending was part of the speech’s body and the conclusion was just extremely short, or whether the conclusion of the speech was very long. A better transition into the conclusion would make the speech better. The setting of this speech was  extremely formal. The size of the room was fairly large—it appeared like a theatre. Cuddy is atop a large stage and the spotlight is on her. The room is darker where the audience is. This kind of setting impacts the speech in a way that makes the speaker the center of attention. The audience gives supportive feedback to the speaker. They laugh at all the right times, and the Cuddy responds to this feedback by really engaging with the audience through her questions and affirmations in a non-overdoing way. At the end of her speech, the members of the audience stand up from their seats while giving her a big applause. On a scale of 1-10, I would rate this speaker a 10. This is because this speaker encompassed every characteristic that an effective speaker should portray. She obviously knows what she is doing and has had sufficient practice and experience. I would definitely enjoy listening to Cuddy again because not only was her topic very interesting and enjoyable to listen to and learn about, but she was a great speaker in general. I especially liked the way that she catered her speech to her audience. In my opinion, there weren’t issues that the speaker should have addressed but did not. The speech was succinct and effective. The conclusion of the speech, however, was either too long or too short. I could not tell whether the ending was part of the body and the conclusion was just extremely short, or whether the conclusion was just very long. Works Cited Cuddy, A. (2012, October). Your body language shapes who you are. Retrieved July 30, 2014, from TED:

Saturday, September 14, 2019

The Return: Nightfall Chapter 22

Bonnie was disturbed and confused. It was dark. â€Å"All right,† a voice that was brusque and calming at once was saying. â€Å"That's two possible concussions, one puncture wound in need of a tetanus shot – and – well, I'm afraid I've got to sedate your girl, Jim. And I'm going to need help, but you're not allowed to move at all. You just lie back and keep your eyes shut.† Bonnie opened her own eyes. She had a vague memory of falling forward onto her bed. But she wasn't at home; she was still at the Saitou house, lying on a couch. As always, when in confusion or fear, she looked for Meredith. Meredith was just returning from the kitchen with a makeshift ice pack. She put it on Bonnie's already wet forehead. â€Å"I just fainted,† Bonnie explained, as she herself figured it out. â€Å"That's all.† â€Å"I know you fainted. You cracked your head pretty hard on the floor,† Meredith replied, and for once her face was perfectly readable: worry and sympathy and relief were all visible. She actually had tears pooling in her eyes. â€Å"Oh, Bonnie, I couldn't get to you in time. Isobel was in the way, and those tatami mats don't cushion the floor much – and you've been out for almost half an hour! Youscared me.† â€Å"I'm sorry.† Bonnie fumbled a hand out a blanket she seemed to be wrapped in and gave Meredith's hand a squeeze. It meantvelociraptor sisterhood is still in action . It also meantthank you for caring . Jim was sprawled on another couch holding an ice pack to the back of his head. His face was greenish-white. He tried to stand up but Dr. Alpert – it was her voice that was both crusty and kind – pushed him back onto the couch. â€Å"You don't need any more exertion,† she said. â€Å"But I do need an assistant. Meredith, can you help me with Isobel? It sounds as if she's going to be quite a handful.† â€Å"She hit me in the back of the head with a lamp,† Jim warned them. â€Å"Don't ever turn your back on her.† â€Å"We'll be careful,† Dr. Alpert said. â€Å"You two stayhere ,† Meredith added firmly. Bonnie was watching Meredith's eyes. She wanted to get up to help them with Isobel. But Meredith had that special look of determination that meant it was better not to argue. As soon as they left, Bonnie tried to stand up. But immediately she began to see the pulsating gray nothingness that meant she was going to pass out again. She lay back down, teeth gritted. For a long time there were crashes and shouts from Isobel's room. Bonnie would hear Dr. Alpert's voice raised, and then Isobel's, and then a third voice – not Meredith, who never shouted if she could help it, but what sounded like Isobel's voice, only slowed down and distorted. Then, finally, there was silence, and Meredith and Dr. Alpert came back carrying a limp Isobel between them. Meredith had a bloody nose and Dr. Alpert's short pepper-and-salt hair was standing on end, but they had somehow gotten a T-shirt onto Isobel's abused body and Dr. Alpert had managed to hang on to her black bag as well. â€Å"Walking wounded, stay where you are. We'll be back to lend you a hand,† the doctor said in her terse way. Next Dr. Albert and Meredith made another trip to take Isobel's grandmother with them. â€Å"I don't like her color,† Dr. Albert said briefly. â€Å"Or the tick of her tocker. We might as well all go get checked up.† A minute later they returned to help Jim and Bonnie to Dr. Albert's SUV. The sky had clouded over, and the sun was a red ball not far from the horizon. â€Å"Do you want me to give you something for the pain?† the doctor asked, seeing Bonnie eyeing the black bag. Isobel was in the very back of the SUV, where the seats had been folded down. Meredith and Jim were in the two seats in front of her, with Grandma Saitou between them, and Bonnie – at Meredith's insistence – was in the front with the doctor. â€Å"Um, no, it's okay,† Bonnie said. Actually, she had been wondering whether the hospital actually could cure Isobel of infection any better than Mrs. Flowers' herbal compresses could. But although her head throbbed and ached and she was developing a lump the size of a hard-boiled egg on her forehead, she didn't want to cloud her thinking. There was something nagging at her, some dream or something she'd had while Meredith said she'd been unconscious. Whatwas it? â€Å"All right then. Seat belts on? Here we go.† The SUV pulled away from the Saitou house. â€Å"Jim, you said Isobel has a three-year-old sister asleep upstairs, so I called my granddaughter Jayneela to come over here. At least it will be somebody in the house.† Bonnie twisted around to look at Meredith. They both spoke at once. â€Å"Oh, no! She can't go in!Especially not into Isobel's room! Look, please, you have to – † Bonnie babbled. â€Å"I'm really not sure if that's a good idea, Dr. Alpert,† Meredith said, no less urgently but much more coherently. â€Å"Unless she does stay away from that room and maybe has someone with her – a boy would be good.† â€Å"A boy?† Dr. Alpert seemed bewildered, but the combination of Bonnie's distress and Meredith's sincerity seemed to convince her. â€Å"Well, Tyrone, my grandson, was watching TV when I left. I'll try to get him.† â€Å"Wow!† Bonnie said involuntarily. â€Å"That's the Tyrone who's offensive tackle on the football team next year, huh? I heard that they call him the Tyre-minator.† â€Å"Well, let's say I think he'll be able to protect Jayneela,† Dr. Alpert said after making the call. â€Å"But we're the ones with the, ah,overexcited girl in the vehicle with us. From the way she fought the sedative, I'd say she's quite a ;;terminator' herself.† Meredith's mobile phone beeped out the tune it used for numbers not in its memory, and then announced, â€Å"Mrs. T. Flowers is calling you. Will you take the – † In a moment Meredith had hit thetalk button. â€Å"Mrs. Flowers?† she said. The hum of the SUV kept anything Mrs. Flowers might be saying from Bonnie and the others, so Bonnie went back to concentrating on two things: what she knew about the â€Å"victims† of the Salem â€Å"witches,† and what that elusive thought while she was unconscious had been. All of which promptly flew away when Meredith put down her mobile phone. â€Å"What was it? What?What? † Bonnie couldn't get a clear view of Meredith's face in the dusk, but it looked pale, and when she spoke shesounded pale, too. â€Å"Mrs. Flowers was doing some gardening and she was about to go inside when she noticed that there was something in her begonia bushes. She said it looked as if someone had tried to stuff something down between the bush and a wall, but a bit of fabric stuck up.† Bonnie felt as if the wind had been knocked out of her.†What was it?† â€Å"It was a duffel bag, full of shoes and clothes. Boots. Shirts. Pants. All Stefan's.† Bonnie gave a shriek that caused Dr. Alpert to swerve and then recover, the SUV fishtailing. â€Å"Oh, my God; oh, my God – he didn't go!† â€Å"Oh, I think he went all right. Just not of his own free will,† Meredith said grimly. â€Å"Damon,† Bonnie gasped, and slumped back into her own seat, tears welling up in her eyes and overflowing. â€Å"I couldn't help wanting to believe†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Head getting worse?† Dr. Alpert asked, tactfully ignoring the conversation that had not included her. â€Å"No – well, yes, it is,† Bonnie admitted. â€Å"Here, open the bag and give me a look inside. I've got samples of this and that†¦all right, here you go. Anybody see a water bottle back there?† Jim listlessly handed one over. â€Å"Thanks,† Bonnie said, taking the small pill and a deep gulp. She had to get her head right. If Damon had kidnapped Stefan, then she should be Calling for him, shouldn't she? God only knew where he would end up this time. Why hadn't any of them even thought of it as a possibility? Well, first, because the new Stefan was supposed to be so strong, and second, because of the note in Elena's diary. â€Å"That's it!† she said, startling even herself. It had all come flooding back, everything that she and Matt had shared†¦. â€Å"Meredith!† she said, oblivious to the side look which Dr. Alpert gave her, â€Å"while I was unconscious I talked withMatt . He was unconscious, too – â€Å" â€Å"Was he hurt?† â€Å"God, yes. Damon must have been doing something awful. But he said to ignore it, that something had been bothering him about the note Stefan left for Elena ever since he saw it. Something about Stefan talking to the English teacher about how to spelljudgment last year. And he just kept saying,Look for the backup file. Look for the backup†¦before Damon does .† She stared at Meredith's dim face, aware as they cruised slowly to stop at an intersection that Dr. Alpert and Jim were both staring at her. Tact had its limits. Meredith's voice broke the silence. â€Å"Doctor,† she said, â€Å"I'm going to have to ask you something. If you take a left here and another one at Laurel Street and then just drive for about five minutes to Old Wood, it won't be too far out of your way. But it'll let me get to the boardinghouse where the computer Bonnie's talking about is. You may think I'm crazy, but Ineed to get to that computer.† â€Å"I know you're not crazy; I'd have noticed it by now.† The doctor laughed mirthlessly. â€Å"And I have heard some things about young Bonnie here†¦nothing bad, I promise, but a little difficult to believe. After seeing what I saw today, I think I'm beginning to change my opinion about them.† The doctor abruptly took a left turn, muttering, â€Å"Somebody's taken the stop sign from this road, too.† Then she continued, to Meredith, â€Å"I can do what you ask. I'd drive you all the way to the old boardinghouse – â€Å" â€Å"No! That would be much too dangerous!† † – but I've got to get Isobel to a hospital as soon as possible. Not to mention Jim. I think he really does have a concussion. And Bonnie – † â€Å"Bonnie,† Bonnie said, enunciating distinctly, â€Å"is going to the boardinghouse, too.† â€Å"No, Bonnie! I'm going torun , Bonnie, do you understand that? I'm going torun as fast as I can – and I can't let you hold me up.† Meredith's voice was grim. â€Å"I won't hold you up, I swear it. You go ahead and run. I'll run, too. My head feels fine, now. If you have to leave me behind, youkeep on running. I'll be coming after you.† Meredith opened her mouth and then closed it again. There must have been something in Bonnie's face that told her any kind of argument would be useless, Bonnie thought. Because that was the truth of the matter. â€Å"Here we are,† Dr. Alpert said a few minutes later. â€Å"Corner of Laurel and Old Wood.† She pulled a small flashlight out of her black bag and shone it in each of Bonnie's eyes, one after another. â€Å"Well, it still doesn't look as if you have concussion. But you know, Bonnie, that my medical opinion is that you shouldn't be running anywhere. I just can't force you to accept to take treatment if you don't want it. But I can make you take this.† She handed Bonnie the small flashlight. â€Å"Good luck.† â€Å"Thank you for everything,† Bonnie said, for an instant laying her pale hand on Dr. Alpert's long-fingered, dark brown one. â€Å"You be careful, too – of fallen trees and of Isobel, and of something red in the road.† â€Å"Bonnie, I'm leaving.† Meredith was already outside the SUV. â€Å"And lock your doors! And don't get out until you're away from the woods!† Bonnie said, as she tumbled down from the vehicle beside Meredith. And then they ran. Of course, all that Bonnie had said about Meredith running in front of her, leaving her behind, was nonsense, and they both knew it. Meredith seized Bonnie's hand as soon as Bonnie's feet had touched the road and began running like a greyhound, dragging Bonnie along with her, at times seeming to whirl her over dips in the road. Bonnie didn't need to be told how important speed was. She wished desperately that they had a car. She wished a lot of things, primarily that Mrs. Flowers lived in the middle of town and not way out here on the wild side. At last, as Meredith had foreseen, she was winded, and her hand so slick with sweat that it slipped out of Meredith's hand. She bent almost double, hands on her knees, trying to get her breath. â€Å"Bonnie! Wipe your hand! We have to run!† â€Å"Just – give me – a minute – â€Å" â€Å"We don't have a minute! Can't youhear it?Come on! â€Å" â€Å"I justneed – to get – my breath.† â€Å"Bonnie, look behind you. And don't scream!† Bonnie looked behind her, screamed, and then discovered that she wasn't winded after all. She took off, grabbing Meredith's hand. She could hear it, now, even above her own wheezing breath and the pounding in her ears. It was an insect sound, not a buzzing but still a sound that her brain filed underbug . It sounded like the whipwhipwhip of a helicopter, only much higher in pitch, as if a helicopter could have insect-like tentacles instead of blades. With that one glance, she had made out an entire gray mass of those tentacles, with heads in front – and all the heads were open to show mouths full of white sharp teeth. She struggled to turn on the flashlight. Night was falling, and she had no idea how long it would be until moonrise. All she knew was that the trees seemed to make everything darker, and thatthey were after her and Meredith. The malach. The whipping sound of tentacles beating the air was much louder now. Much closer. Bonnie didn't want to turn around and see the source of it. The sound was pushing her body beyond all sane limits. She couldn't help hearing over and over Matt's words:like putting my hand in a garbage disposal and turning it on. Like putting my hand in a garbage disposal†¦ Her hand and Meredith's were covered with sweat again. And the gray mass was definitely overtaking them. It was only half as far away as it had been at first, and the whipping noise was getting higher-pitched. At the same time her legs felt like rubber. Literally. She couldn't feel her knees. And now they felt like rubber dissolving into gelatin. Vipvipvipvipveeee†¦ It was the sound of one of them, closer than the rest. Closer, closer, and then it was in front of them, its mouth open in an oval shape with teeth all around the perimeter. Just like Matt had said. Bonnie had no breath to scream with. But she needed to scream. The headless thing with no eyes or features – just that horrible mouth – had turned ahead of them and was coming right for her. And her automatic response – to beat at it with her hands – could cost her an arm. Oh God, it was coming for her face†¦. â€Å"There's the boardinghouse,† gasped Meredith, giving her a jerk that lifted her off her feet.†Run!† Bonnie ducked, just as the malach tried to collide with her. Instantly, she felt tentacleswhipwhipwhip into her curly hair. She was abruptly yanked backward to a painful stumble and Meredith's hand was torn out of hers. Her legs wanted to collapse. Her guts wanted her to scream. â€Å"Oh, God, Meredith, it's got me! Run!Don't let one get you!† In front of her, the boardinghouse was lit up like a hotel. Usually it was dark except for maybe Stefan's window and one other. But now it shone like a jewel, just beyond her reach. â€Å"Bonnie, shut your eyes!† Meredith hadn't left her. She was still here. Bonnie could feel vine-like tentacles gently brushing her ear, lightly tasting her sweaty forehead, working toward her face, her throat†¦She sobbed. And then there was a sharp, loud crack mixed with a sound like a ripe melon bursting, and something damp scattered all over her back. She opened her eyes. Meredith was dropping a thick branch she had been holding like a baseball bat. The tentacles were already sliding out of Bonnie's hair. Bonnie didn't want to look at the mess behind her. â€Å"Meredith, you – â€Å" â€Å"Come on – run!† And she was running again. All the way up the gravel boardinghouse driveway, all the way up the path to the door. And there, in the doorway, Mrs. Flowers was standing with an old-fashioned kerosene lamp. â€Å"Get in, get in,† she said, and as Meredith and Bonnie skittered to a stop, sobbing for air, she slammed the door shut behind them. They all heard the sound that came next. It was like the sound the branch had made – a sharp crack plus a bursting, only much louder, and repeated many times over, like popcorn popping. Bonnie was shaking as she took her hands away from her ears and slid down to sit on the entry-hall rug. â€Å"What in heaven's name have you girls been doing to yourselves?† Mrs. Flowers said, eyeing Bonnie's forehead, Meredith's swollen nose, and their general state of sweaty exhaustion. â€Å"It takes too – long to explain,† Meredith got out. â€Å"Bonnie! You can sit down – upstairs.† Somehow or other Bonnie made it upstairs. Meredith went at once to the computer and turned it on, collapsing on the desk chair in front of it. Bonnie used the last of her energy to pull off her top. The back was stained with nameless insect juices. She crumpled it into a ball and threw it into a corner. Then she fell down on Stefan's bed. â€Å"What exactly did Matt say?† Meredith was getting her breath back. â€Å"He saidLook in the backup – orLook for the backup file or something. Meredith, my head†¦it isn't good.† â€Å"Okay. Just relax. You did great out there.† â€Å"I made it because you saved me. Thanks†¦again†¦.† â€Å"Don't worry about it. But I don't understand,† Meredith added in her talking-to-herself murmur. â€Å"There's a backup file of this note in the same directory, but it's no different. I don't see what Matt meant.† â€Å"Maybe he was confused,† Bonnie said reluctantly. â€Å"Maybe he was just in a lot of pain and sort of off his head.† â€Å"Backup file, backup file†¦wait a minute! Doesn't Word automatically save a backup in some weird place, like under the administrator directory or somewhere?† Meredith was clicking rapidly through directories. Then she said, in a disappointed voice, â€Å"No, nothing there.† She sat back, letting her breath out sharply. Bonnie knew what she must be thinking. Their long and desperate run through danger couldn't all be for nothing. Itcouldn't . Then, slowly, Meredith said, â€Å"There are a lot of temp files in here for one little note.† â€Å"What's a temp file?† â€Å"It's just a temporary storage of your file while you're working on it. Usually it just looks like gibberish, though.† The clicking started again. â€Å"But I must as well be thorough – oh!† She interrupted herself. The clicking stopped. And then there was dead silence. â€Å"What is it?† Bonnie said anxiously. More silence. â€Å"Meredith! Talk to me!Did you find a backup file? â€Å" Meredith said nothing. She seemed not even to hear. She was reading with what looked like horrified fascination.