Wednesday, March 11, 2020

The Ancient Spartans Had a Murderous Secret Police

The Ancient Spartans Had a Murderous Secret Police If 300 taught us anything, its that the Spartans were a hardy and courageous group. But they werent the nicest to their own people, punishing young people brutally for infractions, and even utilizing the youth as a secret service! Meet the krypteia, a sort of Hitler Youth of Sparta. When a Training Procedure Goes Really,  Really Wrong According to ancient sources, the krypteia were as vicious as they came. Its members were chosen for their discretion and probably their hardiness, intelligence, and resourcefulness. As Plato has Megillus recount in his  Laws,  Spartan youths underwent training, widely prevalent amongst us, in hardy endurance of pain in the form of beatings, but it was the krypteia that was the most brutal of all. That kind of work was a wonderfully severe training. So what was their deal? Apparently, the idea for the krypteia mightve come from the  laws of Lycurgus,  the king of Spartan legalese; his reforms were, according to  Plutarch,  efficacious in producing valour, but defective in producing righteousness.   Writes Plutarch: I certainly cannot ascribe to Lycurgus so abominable a measure as the ‘krypteia,’ judging of his character from his mildness and justice in all other instances. Over time, the krypteia  evolved  from a form of uber-advanced fitness training to a sort-of-secret  guerrilla  force. The group appears to have had some representation in the mainstream Spartan army, as well; in Plutarchs  Cleomenes, a fellow named Damocles is given the title of commander of the secret service contingent. But  Damoteles doesnt get  the greatest rep - he was bribed to betray his own people to  the enemy - and the people he represented seem to have been even worse. The organization of the krypteia seems to have been in direct opposition to the regular hoplites in  the Spartan army, as if the very way it was set up made it different of special. The hoplites were organized, fought in a phalanx, and worked as a team; in contrast, the krypteia fought in secret, went out in  irregular groups and missions, and stayed away from Sparta proper, working and living on  the frontier. The Bad,  the Worst, and the  Really Ugly As Plutarch tells it, the Spartan leaders would periodically send the young men of the krypteia out into the country at large. What for, you might ask? The young soldiers would hide themselves until they came across groups of people called helots.  At night, they came down into the highways and killed every Helot whom they caught. Even during the day, the krypteia massacred  the helots working in the fields. The  Ephors, the leaders of Sparta, made formal declaration of war upon the helots, in order that there might be no impiety in slaying them. Perhaps, as some scholars have theorized, serving in the krypteia allows soldiers to practice stealth and cunning .But what the krypteia did was basically state-sanctioned massacre! Who were the helots? Why did the Spartan magistrates commission their young warriors to kill them? The helots were serfs owned by the Spartan state, basically slaves; the Roman historian Livy claims that they were a race of rustics, who have been feudal vassals even from the earliest times.  The krypteia was a force the government utilized to keep the helots in their place,  according  to Brandon D. Ross.  Aristotle discusses the helots in his  Politics, saying that the mere necessity of policing a serf class is an irksome burden. What freedoms do you give them? How much leeway  should  they get? he asks. The relationship between the Spartans and the helots was fractious at best. Once upon a time, the people of Spartan-ruled Messenia and the helots revolted against the Lacedaemonian lords. They took  advantage of the chaos that ensued after the earthquakes of 464 B.C., but that didnt work, and the Spartans kept up their cruel treatment.   How else did the Spartans torture the helots? Heres our pal Plutarch: For instance, they would force them to drink too much strong wine, and then introduce them into their public messes, to show the young men what a thing drunkenness was. They also ordered them to sing songs and dance dances that were low and ridiculous, but to let the nobler kind alone. The Spartan torture of the Helots wasnt a one-time thing. On one occasion, Livy recounts how, being charged with an intention to desert, they were driven with stripes through all the streets, and put to death. Another time, two thousand helots mysteriously disappeared in a possible act of genocide; then, on a different occasion, a bunch of helots were suppliants at the minor Temple of Poseidon Taenarius, but were seized from that sacred spot. That kind of sacrilege - violating the sanctuary of a temple - was as awful as it got; the right of asylum was a truly valued one. Shame on Sparta!

Monday, February 24, 2020

Listening Strategies Literature review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Listening Strategies - Literature review Example Language learners were normally expected to develop their listening skills without any assistance, while the other three skills of reading, writing and speaking are given the necessary attention (Mendelsohn 1984; Oxford 1993). Second language learners were expected to listen to the target language all day and then expected to improvements in their ability to comprehend. This approach was described as the osmosis approach (Mendelson 1984) The arguments in relation to the importance of listening were initially voiced in the middle of the 1960’s. Rivers (1966) indicated that speaking can only be described as communication when it is understood by someone else and so teaching learners how to comprehend spoken words is paramount in importance if the aim of communicating is to be achieved. Thus, Hedge (2000) indicates that the literature relating to ELT has emphasised the point that listening skill has been taken for granted over the years. In fact, a number of second language teach ers have refused to pay attention to the significance of listening in facilitating the acquisition of a second language (Luchini and Arguello 2009). However, Nunan (1999) points out that listening has been treated as relatively important as it is the means by which the skill of speaking is attained. The incorporation of listening into a more modern set of guidelines, including functional language and approaches to communication was the main focus of the 1980’s (Morley 2001). This attention increased significantly in the 1990’s and this has continued into the decade of the 2000’s. Even though listening is now regarded as a critical aspect of language learning, it continues to be the least understood of all the processes (Osada 2004). Thus, Luchini and Arguello (2009) states that allowing students to answer questions after listening to tape-recorded material is not a means of teaching them to listen. In this regard, Hedge (2000) points out that the aim of answerin g questions after listening to recorded material is only for administering tests and not teaching second language learners to listen. This practice was found to have a negative impact on the ability of second language learners to communicate well in the target language. In relation to the neglect of listening comprehension in both research and practice, Osada (2004) indicates that even up to recently there has been insufficient research in this area. In fact, Nunan (1997) referred to listening as a Cinderella skill because it has been ignored in preference for other skills such as speaking. Listening is important in order to facilitate language learning as it facilitates a better understanding of the inputs. Osada (2004) also emphasised the complexity of the listening comprehension process. Anything that is said has to be understood at the same time as it is heard and so knowledge and skills necessary for doing so has to he used at the same time. In order to process the speech the c omprehension of the text has to take place at the same as the listening. Additionally, it has to be retained in order to have a better understanding of the speech that follows. Furthermore, it requires continuous adjustment based on previous knowledge and incoming information. This poses a problem for listeners as the space available to process the information is limited. Osada

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Comparison of 3-Dimensional Radiotherapy with IMRT for nasopharyngeal Dissertation

Comparison of 3-Dimensional Radiotherapy with IMRT for nasopharyngeal cancer - Dissertation Example The treatment modality therefore, revolves around successful and complete removal of the tumour mass without damage to the vital organs around the tumour (Tham and Lu, 2010). Most of the critical analysis presented in this research is based on findings that have been carried out on patients of Eastern Asian origin. This is because nasopharyngeal carcinomas are prevalent in this population group. On the same note, some of the most significant research results and tabulations have been obtained from studies carried out in these geographical areas. One of the most significant facts about NPC is that these are diagnosed in later stages of cancer (Afqir, Ismaili and Errihani, 2009, pp 3). The close proximity of different regions leads to many problems after treatment is carried out. Adverse effects to the pituatory, thyroid and hypothalamic glands are commonly seen post treatment (Stevens et al, 1998). Soft tissue fibrosis leading to trismus and necrosis of the eye structures is also comm only seen (Stevens et al, 1998). Surgical treatment options are somewhat reserved due to the complex location of the tumour. Studies researching the efficacy of surgical treatment have shown higher tissue destruction, and increased chances in recurrence and metastasis, which are reflected in high mortality rates, with five year survival rates falling in the range of 33-57% only (Leu and Lee, 2009, pp 103). A similar study assessed the effects of salvage surgery on patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiation therapy. The study selected 38 patients with recurrence in NPC who underwent surgery (Chang et al, 2004, pp 499). The results showed a 3 year survival rate and local control rate of 69 and 72.8% respectively. Local control rates at the intracranial and skull base levels were 83.3%, and the overall morbidity rates were below 14% (Chang et al, 2004, pp 500). Morbidity rates with radiotherapy treatment alone fall between 40 To 50%, whereas combined radio and che motherapy provide survival rates of 55 to 80% respectively (Paulino and Louis, 2010). However, this study has very limited number of participants, making it difficult to state that the results are significant. However, when viewed in comparison to many other studies on the efficacy of combined radiotherapy, the results bear some significance. Another important consideration is that surgery can still become an option in cancers which are of larger size, in order to help reduce the severity and duration of the chemoradiation therapy. Very large cancers can be removed with the help of fine surgical instruments, after which pockets of tumour can be removed through radiation and chemotherapy. Surgical treatments however, have been largely replaced by the newer and more sophisticated technology of irradiation. However, chemotherapy is another major contender for treatments of NPC. Many drugs have been introduced, but so far, trials and researches have gathered evidence for cisplatin and 5 -florucil respectively. Trials of use of cisplatin combined with radiotherapy for NPC have shown an overall survival rate of 76% at two to three years, which is comparatively better than therapy from any one of the methods alone. Another trial on 130 patients showed a 46% rate of survival with combined chemotherapy compared to 25% of it when treatment was done with radiation alone at five years (Siewert, Salama and Vokes, 2006, pp 168 and 169). Other drugs that are being used or considered for combined

What Should I Write in My College Essay Application?

What Should I Write in My College Essay Application?The question on everyone's mind is; what should I write in my college essay application? The first thing to do is to take a look at what you know and what you have already done in the past.As a student, the things that you have already written on your own will be the best suggestions to put into your essay. There is no point in beginning a college essay application when you do not have any writing experience. When you do not have any personal writing to put into the final version of your paper, it is not such a big deal to send off that application to a college admissions officer.It is best to sit down and talk with someone from college and see what sort of writing he or she may want you to write. You can take your friend or relative and ask them what they think. Some may say to write a story, others may want to get down to the 'nitty-gritty' of life and analyze things from a specific angle. These are examples of what to write in yo ur college essay application.When you are looking for an adviser, try to find out what your current school will expect you to put into your application, because it will affect your essays. If you are applying to a college with a high reputation, you will most likely be required to use formal English as the main form of writing.Writing a long essay is not as easy as it seems. It takes time to write something that will be taken seriously. Plus, it has to be written in a concise manner so that it can be interpreted. But after you have mastered the art of writing a good essay, it is all in the choice of words.Once you havestarted writing and picked up the correct words, you need to make sure that you have used them correctly. For example, if you are speaking in the third person, then make sure that you keep the letters of the alphabet out. You will need to write a short paragraph as well as a full body paragraph so that it is not difficult to understand.Make sure that you do not include any unnecessary information in your paper. It may seem harmless at the beginning, but if you add some unnecessary information, it will not help you later on. You must remember that you are writing for a college admissions officer, not for friends.

Thursday, February 6, 2020

The Do This, Get That Guide On Sample Essay Topics for as I Lay Dying

The Do This, Get That Guide On Sample Essay Topics for as I Lay Dying Gets you pumped and is a good song to obey. Among the very best metalcore songs ever. The chorus in this song is equally as incredible. An exact overpowering song. But duty appears somewhat fragile. There's much talk about duty. The Argument About Sample Essay Topics for as I Lay Dying Anse wants to receive a set of false teeth. The narrators feel that what they're saying and thinking is reality. Some narrators including Cora Tull can be almost discounted in the majority of cases because her perception of people is nearly always erroneous. We knew this book would be simple. Citations and extracts from assorted sources have to be formatted properly. The very first section introduces the introspective Darl, who's the sole son who's fully mindful of all kinds of sensory images and impressions. Although the majority of the characters take part in the exact events, their own histories and individual thoughts often lead them to formulate extremely different views about the exact same circumstance. Needless to say, Faulkner does run the danger of losing his audience by making his story so challenging to follow occasionally. It's really hard to correct without being aware of what the writer was attempting to express. Oftentimes, a challenged book is only going to be censored. Yes, Lopatto's essay is all about a cat instead of a human being. Obviously, this isn't the ideal approach to help his mother, but Darl is quite much traumatized, and, thus, can't locate any other way out. Darl appears to get the capacity to observe and explain the surroundings around him. You got to wait just a little while. The issue with our world is that people don't learn to listen to one another. The Basic Facts of Sample Essay Topics for as I Lay Dying Clarke is explaining within this passage how there are not any words needed in the association between Addie and Cash. Cash would like to display his carpentry work and search for a gramophone. The association between Cash and Addie is magnificent for many explanations. Cash plans to purchase a record player. It's easy to prepare, use and manage, which means that your company can concentrate on what really matters. Dewey Dell went to obtain an abortion. The Upside to Sample Essay Topics for as I Lay Dying You're crazy, according to a single member of your party. But to do that, we should have a genuine consensus building discussion. It's tough to encapsulate all the topics we would like to address with a written statement. You're able to discover topics to compose your academic assignment right here. They have websites which offer direct contacts between writers and customers and allow them to discuss details and get the very best result. Write an essay discussing the way the comic characteristics of the novel help modify the grotesque or horrible details of the journey. Your suggestion is going to be processed whenever possible. As stated by the website Banned-Books. Darl's feeling that he's not part of his mother is more than only an expression of sibling rivalry. For instance, when the coffin is lost in the river, we have many narrations which let us see precisely the same event from a number of different vantage points. Vardaman later grasps the idea of death and the way it relates back to his own being. In this manner, death is depicted as a potent force. If their grief seems to have no sting, that is the way it appears on the surface. The main reason because of his release was reportedly because of overcrowding in the jail. Poverty is the reason for physical pain. Poverty, bad weather, injury, and pregnancy are only some of the hindrances faced on the way.

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Brief Article Teaches You the Ins and Outs of What Sets You Apart from Other Applicants College Essay and What You Should Do Today

Brief Article Teaches You the Ins and Outs of What Sets You Apart from Other Applicants College Essay and What You Should Do Today What Sets You Apart from Other Applicants College Essay Secrets Be certain to put some thought into what topic you're going to compose your essay on before you simply launch into it. Have a look at our guide on the Duke essays for all you need to understand! The essay has to be clear, concise and structurally sound and totally accurate when it comes to spelling and grammar. All trustworthy essay writing services supply a chance of communicating with college essay writers. The answers have to be short. You are going to want to answer the question as directly as possible, and you're going to want to follow word limits exactly. Be certain you answer the perfect question. It's difficult enough to ascertain what things to include when given a particular question to answer to write. Therefore, if you're planning to eventually apply to graduate school, take note that you could have to write still another diversity statement! 1 important point to notice is that while all scholarships are free in the feeling they don't need to be paid back, some are taxable. You're able to discuss whatever isn't shown on a different part of your college application. Moreover, all college papers have to get written in line with the standard structure and a lot of other vital aspects. UW also provides advice on the best way to answer the prompt. Students often examine the personal statement and don't have any clue where to get started. Because colleges wish to realize that you really need to attend their school. They want you to write concisely. Personal Achievements Colleges are interested in students who have achieved in some region of their lives. The activities and accomplishments on a resume are a few of the significant ways that a student can reflect her or his individuality. If you can imagine a literal object that operates nicely with your talents and experiences, then amazing. Students will need to place another effort on originality and exceptional writing abilities and storytelling. Whatever They Told You About What Sets You Apart from Other Applicants College Essay Is Dead Wrong...And Here's Why You would like the readers to feel as they are right there with you, so utilize as many descriptors as possible. You are not going to offend the reader. The reader should comprehend what the writer is attempting to say right from the very start. He will be able to tell if you are writing with passion or just writing to get the job done. What Sets You Apart from Other Applicants College Essay Features Admissions officers are bored with hearing the exact same stories, and thus don't shy away from what makes you different. Colleges take a lot of things into account when accepting students in their programs. Or, you might be a mechanical engineering student who would like to work with a particular professor at Pratt and make the most of the research opportunities Duke offers to study thermal and fluids systems. While you ought to use expert language, don't attempt to use big'' words that you believe an admissions officer would like to see. Looking for all the relevant articles online might also be a nightmare. Please describe your cultural and community service pursuits and why you opted to take part inside them. It's vital for practically any college essay writing service to supply a huge range of potential subjects to please all requirements of consumers. Extra that you provide or services that you think ought to be included. What sets me apart from the thousands of different applicants is that almost all of them probably haven't spent a good deal of time living beyond the law. For instance, if you're asking for a team management position and the work description highlights the firm's drive to facilitate cross-department communication, you might share your capacity to bring people together around a mutual goal and make drive in a group setting. Although your experience doesn't need to be completely unique, the direction you describe it does. Consider what makes you uniquely ideal for the job. What Sets You Apart from Other Applicants College Essay Ideas Instead, make your principal points powerful and don't be worried about adding too many embellishments to the essay. For any essay, a crystal clear structure is essential. Only an entire Essay template can supply you with all the details you want to learn about.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Life of a Chinese Farmer Essay Example for Free

Life of a Chinese Farmer Essay If I were a Chinese farmer in 2006 I would be continuing my livelihood that I have done all of my life even when I was a child helping my family. I later got married and I now have 6 children ranging in age from 4 to 18. We all live in a village called Xinzhuang (Village of Xin) in China. This is a farming village that is about 1481.3 miles outside of Shanguani, China that is the closest well known city. My typical day starts out at 7:15 AM when I get up and eat breakfast with my family and then I go out into the garden and pick the vegetables that are ready and we use these vegetables for our dinner that evening. Then I have time to do some other things around the house including laundry and household repairs that need to be completed. Our normal meals consist of rice and vegetables unless I have the money to purchase some meat from one of the small shops in the village. For entertainment we normally visit with others in the village, sing songs, and occasionally we are able to access the internet, and watch television. The biggest concerns that I have for my family is are we going to have enough food and is our farm going to be taken over and built on so that we don’t have enough room to grow our vegetables. I also worry about my family and their health because we do not have a doctor in our village. We must travel to Shanguani for any healthcare issues that arise with our family. REFERENCES www.chinatoday.com/entertain/entertain.htm www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-11/19/content393991.htm