Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Corporate Culture Of Enron And Its Bankruptcy Accounting Essay Example For Students

Corporate Culture Of Enron And Its Bankruptcy Accounting Essay How did the corporate civilization of Enron contribute to its bankruptcy? Harmonizing to Albert Camus A adult male without moralss is a wild animal loosed upon this universe At first sight, Enron looks like a mega-size illustration of the bad apple among the ripes 1s. It projected itself as fiscal of Business Ethics. On December 2.2001 Enron Corp. Filed the largest bankruptcy in U.S history due to many unethical issues. The Enron Scandal shocked the universe. Enron had an overpowering aura of pride and carried with it the deep-rooted belief that its people could manage increasing hazard without any effects. The civilization promoted greed and focused on how much money could be made for executives. For, illustration Enrons compensation programs seemed less concerned with bring forthing net incomes for stockholders than with enriching Companys wealth. Enrons corporate civilization reportedly encouraged profiteering. The Enron prostration has sent shockwaves all over the fiscal universe and raised serious inquiries sing corporate administration. The Enron bankruptcy is going the most celebrated and extremely publicized bankruptcy instance in history. There are Numberss of unethical issues that contribute Enron to its bankruptcy. They are as follows- : ? Improper Accounting One of the major ground behind of its bankruptcy was improper accounting system. ( Enrons attorneies in grand 2001 ) The company used corrupt accounting steps to do their net incomes.Although these patterns produced more favourable fiscal image, outside perceivers believed they might represent deceitful fiscal coverage because they didnt accurately represent the companys true fiscal status. For illustration the company established the special-purpose entities ( SPEs ) to travel the assestd and debt of its balance sheet and increase hard currency flow by demoing through its books when it sold assets. ? Hiding the losingss and blow uping net incomes: The company has a hard currency flow of negative sum $ 154 1000000s, Enron claimed of 3 million in its hard currency flow ? Bad Communication- : Delivering the bad intelligence. Liing to the assorted stakeholders, the fiscal statements conceal the momentous losingss to their Stockholders. Stock analysts were frequently obscure and didnt stipulate their operation cost and their fundss. ? Misleading the fiscal reports- : The bankruptcy filing came after uncovering that Enron used ( SPEs ) , Particular Purpose Entities. SPEs hid losingss. Enron used SPEs to travel assets and debts off it balance sheet. This enables addition in its Cash Flow. ? Poor concern and accounting processs encouraged greed. ? Unregulated private partnerships ( SPES ) to take on debts ? Over 5000 Enron employees lost their support due to Top Managements greed. Enrons VP Sherron Watkins systematically sent studies out to the so Chairman sketching improper accounting methods employed. The biggest job was that Enron outsourced its internal audit map. It outsourced both its internal and external auditing map to Arthur Andersen. 2. Did Enrons bankers, hearers, and lawyers contribute to Enrons demise? If so, what was their part? Enrons demise affect its relation to its bankers, hearer and lawyers. Enrons hearer: Enron hearers knew in mid August from a senior Enron employees concern about impropernesss in the energy companys Accounting patterns ( Washington Jan16 ) .Arthur Andersen was responsible for guaranting the truth of Enrons fiscal statements and internal clerking. Sherwood andersons studies were used by possible investors to judge Enrons fiscal soundness and future potency before they decided whether to put. Current investors decide if their financess should stay invested at that place. Former CEO Jeffrey Skilling, widely seen as Enrons mastermind. He was so certain he had committed no offense that he waived his right to self-incrimination and testified before Congress that he was non cognizant of any inappropriate fiscal agreement. Jeffrey McMahon told a congressional subcommittee that he had informed Skilling about the companys off-the-balance-sheet partnership in March 2000, when he was Enrons Treasurer. ( ENRONS Collapse: OVERVIEW ; RECEIVE WARNING ON ENRON FIVE MONTH AGO ( Richard A jr. opeel. published on Jan 17 2007 ) .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60 , .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60 .postImageUrl , .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60 , .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60:hover , .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60:visited , .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60:active { border:0!important; } .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60:active , .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60 .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u6ba52ca31292c49f28ea090de950cf60:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: teen suicide EssayEnrons bankers: Although the bank knew there was a job with Enron finances Its ain bankers. Their under composing experiencing on debt issue sold to the populace to turn out that without the bankers Enron will neer stay its strategy on the puting populace. JPMorgan Chase and Citibank were already cognizant of the revenue enhancement ordinances and would hold had beginnings for audited histories. These Bankss issued big loans to the company. They could make so because they would so put off much of the hazard through a complex procedure of fiscal technology. While stockholders pursue single claims against the bank the determination Monday stymies any mass c onsequence by stockholders recovers all the parts of loss of $ 40 one million millions from a wall street bank that earned 1000000s of dollars from Enron in banking fees. ( Julie Creswel ) Enrons Lawyers: In the events taking up to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC ) question, Enrons employees shredded of import paperss to forestall any indictments. 3.What function did the main fiscal officer drama in making the jobs that led to Enrons fiscal jobs? Harmonizing to Bill Saporito, Fastow earned a repute of being a money ace who constructed the complex fiscal vehicles. He employed techniques that could quickly work deregulating markets for energy, H2O, broadband capacity and anything else that could be traded. In 1993, Fastow created 100s of special-purpose entities designed to reassign Enron s debt to an outside company and acquire it off the books-without giving up control of the assets that stood behind the debt. To forestall degrading in Enrons recognition evaluation, Fastow tripled his staff, to more than 100.He hired assorted banking experts and giving them the undertaking of merchandising and purchasing capital hazard. This efficaciously allowed Enron s audited balance sheet to look debt free, while in world it owed more than 30 billion dollars at the tallness of its debt. While presented to the outside universe as being independent entities, the financess Fastow created were to take write-offs off Enron s books and guaranteed non to lose money.. Fastow made 10s of 1000000s of dollars victimizing Enron in this manner, while besides pretermiting basic fiscal patterns such as describing the cash on manus and entire liabilities. Giles Darby, David Bermingham, and Gary Mulgrew worked for Greenwich NatWest. The three British work forces had worked with Fastow on a particular purpose entity he had started called Swap Sub. When Fastow was being investigated by the SEC, the three work forces met with the British Financial Services Authority ( FSA ) in November 2001 to discourse their interactions with Fastow.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Frank Lloyd Wright

Frank Lloyd Wright is an American architect who remains one of the most famous designers of the world due to his original ideas and unusual for ordinary Americans vision.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Frank Lloyd Wright specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Still, considering the buildings and interior design Wright had created, it is possible to say that the buildings designed by this person remind Japanese architecture. This relation may be easily proved if to consider two examples of architecture, one of which is the Japanese building, another one is designed by Wright. This picture is an example of Japanese architectural design. Looking at it, it is easy to see two levels of roof with fascinating design. Moreover, if one is familiar with the Japanese traditions and culture, he/she may easily conclude that Japanese houses full of space. It is natural to see a big room in Japanese architectural design which may b e divided into different areas by means of screens. The same tendency is seen in the buildings designed by Frank Wright. Looking at the picture, it is possible to say that it is created in the same tendency as Japanese buildings are. The roof has several levels, the materials are preliminary wooden. Looking at the building designed by Frank Wright it is possible to predict that the interior design of the building is full of space and light. Japanese people respect nature and the Frank Wright’s building created as the part of this nature may be one more proof that eastern tendencies influenced the architect. Adding to the space discussion, it is possible to state that looking at the skyscrapers the designer did not see the space, there was just height which was dictated by the human desire to be in the center of the city.Advertising Looking for essay on architecture? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The natural tendencie s of the Japanese culture are absolutely different. Nature presupposes space and freedom. That is why these tendencies are so close to Frank Wright and his buildings. Relating Frank Wright’s buildings to Japanese architectural design, it is impossible to omit the fact that geometry plays important role in far eastern culture. It seems that Japanese architects try to hide the reality under the symbolic nature of geometrical forms. Frank Wright’s works have captured some tendencies of cubism which may be easily seen from the exterior view of the building. The structure of the house is extremely important as it enhances its beauty. Looking at the works completed by Frank Wright it is impossible to disagree with the statement. It is impossible to say that Frank Wright copied the traditional Japanese architecture as the buildings have different aesthetic look, still, the tendencies are seen. It is obvious that Frank Lloyd Wright took the ideas from the cultural heritage of Japan and considered those in a new way, tried to give those absolutely new vision. Thus, it may be concluded that the Frank Lloyd Wright was inspired by the traditional Japanese architectural design. A deep look at the architecture of Japanese designers makes it possible to state that some specific features of exterior and interior design Frank Wright used while building his pieces of art were borrowed from Japanese architectural tradition. At the same time, it is necessary to state that Japanese design is not just the modern tendency, but the honor for the tradition rooted to ancient times, while the buildings designed by Wright are unexpected decisions supported with original ideas. This essay on Frank Lloyd Wright was written and submitted by user BlackWidow to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

My Personal Work Experience essays

My Personal Work Experience essays I am writing this paper according to my own work experience. I started working when I was 13 years old. I worked at a kids clothing store in the mall after school and on the weekends. I started working at an early age because my family needed the money. My mother raised five children on her own by holding two jobs, so we all had to help. I would go to school full time and work part-time. I feel that I know the value of money due to my work experiences. Once I start working, it was really hard to stop or cut back on the income that I was earning. I've always wanted to go back to college to get my degree, but I was not able to because I didn't want to make less money. I tried going to school part-time and working full time, but I was not able to do both. I think that if I had the opportunity to get an education first, I would do so before trying to earn a living, but in my situation, I had to work. On the other hand, I think it was good to have had the experience because it made me mor e discipline. I started working due to necessity, but I think along the way luxury became my necessity. I feel that no matter how much I make, it was not enough because there is always something else I need to have. I believe it is about the lifestyle I chose to live which is influenced by the society we live in. I work hard now because it is for my children. I want to provide them with what I did not have growing up. I want to make sure that they have nothing to worry about except to finish school and get a good job. I did not have the same opportunity so I feel that it is very important for me to provide them with the education they need. Most jobs require a degree in order to move up in the company. All the work experience that I had did not get me what I wanted at my company because of politics and other reasons. This is the other reason why I am back in school. Education and experience are what most companies are seeking for anyone they hire. I ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Making the case for employee wellbeing in a manufacturing organisation Thesis Proposal

Making the case for employee wellbeing in a manufacturing organisation - Thesis Proposal Example This paper briefly looks into the importance of employee wellness for a large manufacturing organization. In a large manufacturing organization, the employees function like the rings in a chain. As we know, if any one ring goes out of order or damaged in a chain the strength and cohesion of the chain will be lost. Same way in a large manufacturing organization the production processes are linked together. For example consider a tire manufacturing unit which normally may have three divisions; mixing, building and curing. If the mixing people fail to deliver the product in time, tire building will be affected whereas if the building people fail to complete their duties in time curing will be affected. Thus all the employees in a manufacturing unit complement each other in order to attain maximum productivity. â€Å"In situations where pressures to work longer hours are higher, where employees feel overloaded and where managers place stronger demands on personal time, employees are likely to experience greater dissatisfaction with their jobs, higher stress and fatigue, and greater work—life imbalance. (Macky, 2008) Employees under stress or bad health condition may underperform in an organization which will adversely affect an organization especially a big manufacturing organization. If one of the employees deliberately slows down things, it can affect the entire production activities of the unit. So there is nothing wrong in organizations investing heavily for developing or improving the facilities for the workforce at workplaces. Employees should feel a deep relationship with the organization in order to avoid unnecessary absenteeism or taking unnecessary sick leaves. If the employee considers the organization as his own, then he may refrain from activities which negatively affect the organization for which he is working. But in order to develop such deep relationship with the

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Strategic Organizational Culture Change Management Case Study

Strategic Organizational Culture Change Management - Case Study Example The final culture will be one in which everyone will focus on providing with error-free products and services according to the needs of the customer (Gregory H. Watson, 2007Page "Can it be said that Six Sigma is a culture" to which the obvious answer is "Yes." The reason is that Six Sigma is a concept-based metrics-driven, crisis-solving and project-tailored type of initiative. In addition Six Sigma connects performance to pay, has a proper vision, institutes a value, has distinct roles, is spread by way of knowledge transfer and calls for coaching by internal leaders. These are the reasons that make Six Sigma considerably control corporate culture (http://www. isixsigma.com/forum/ ask_dr_harry.aspToDo=view&questId=51&catId=9, retrieved 2nd October 2009). Gregory H. Watson, 2007, Strategic benchmarking reloaded with six sigma: improve your company's .., Jhon Wiley & sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. http://www.isixsigma.com/forum/ask dr_harry.asp ToDo= view&questId=51&catId =9, retrieved 2nd October 2009.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Relationship between media technology and culture Essay

Relationship between media technology and culture - Essay Example McLuhan’s work laid emphasis on how media is not an exclusive domain, but a space for the intermingling of politics, commerce and culture. One of the founding fathers of the field of media ecology, McLuhan introduced his core ideas in the 1950s and 60s. This was a period of rapid growth in telecommunication technology. The project McLuhan undertook is no less than to explain how â€Å"the nuances and great sweeps of human history are made possible by media of communication--how media determine the thoughts and actions of people and society.† (Strate, 2004) Raymond Williams’ career as a media analyst succeeded that of McLuhan. Consequently, he was able to see the flaws in several of McLuhan’s theories and rectify them to a large extent. Where Williams differed from his predecessor was on his ability to place media in the larger socio-cultural and economic dimensions rather than merely the technological dimension. This essay will argue that while McLuhan lai d out many fundamental concepts governing media studies, it is Williams who offers a more robust and veritable framework of understanding for studying media. Their arguments are weighed in the cases of digital media such as the television and the Internet. And finally, where either scholar’s concepts fall short, the Propaganda Model proposed by Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman is referred to present a more comprehensive understanding of media and its functionality. ... and weapons, in addition to the major mass media and communication technologies.† (Driedger & Redekop, 1998) Hence, media is effectively an extension of human beings and their perceptory faculties and capabilities. While there is efficiency and expedition in the dissemination of information in this setup, the concerns are the attendant negative consequences. For example, an outcome of this pervasive media space is the numbing of our critical faculties under the overload of information processing. In this cultural order where ‘the medium is the message’, there is danger in media technology’s role in â€Å"how and what we communicate, how we think, feel, and use our senses, and in our social organization, way of life, and world view.† (Driedger & Redekop, 1998) I concur with McLuhan’s apprehensive about the power of media technology in determining and dictating culture. McLuhan further argued that â€Å"the sensory organization, and the relation ship between sensory organization and the nature of thought were shaped by a person's direct experience with a medium. He saw television as a high-involvement medium, which leads viewers to crave the same level of involvement in all of their experiences. This was based on his designation of television as a "cool" medium, drawing on the distinction between "hot" jazz which was highly structured, and "cool" jazz, which was more unstructured, generating more listener involvement.† (Driedger & Redekop, 1998) It is fair to claim that this theory is now proven to be inaccurate, for television actually only requires passive consumption as opposed to active engagement. Indeed, television has thus acquired the derogatory terms ‘idiot box’ and ‘the tube’. This is one of several instances where McLuhan’s grasp of the nature

Friday, November 15, 2019

Theories of Interpersonal Perception and Self Presentation

Theories of Interpersonal Perception and Self Presentation Christian S. Bautista Social Psychology Interpersonal Relationship Solomon Asch (1946) found out that when information is given about another person, some parts of that information are given more importance than others. He called this central trait, which he said we are using to make decisions about the personality of the other person. In his warm-cold study, Asch felt that traits like warm and cold when put in conjunction with traits like practical or determined produced a completely different overall impressions. However, S. Nauts et al argued that Asch’s data (1946), do not provide clear evidence for a primacy of warmth effect; the open-ended responses that were important to Asch’s theorizing were not systematically analysed; the trait-pair choice measure seems unfit to test primacy of warmth; and the results of the ranking measure suggest that warmth was not central in determining participant’s impression. Stereotyping is an assumption we make about other people that maybe unconscious, but that influence our perception of others. Stereotypes can be split into two basic forms; individual and group stereotypes. However, negative stereotypes can lead to group polarization and prejudice, Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) (cited in Payne, S. and Walker, J., 1996, p 191) classroom experiment illustrated this. Rosenthal and Jacobson’s study became popular as it seemed to provide a powerful explanation for the low achievement of the so-called disadvantaged students. However, it was also criticized by educational psychologists on conceptual, methodological and statistical grounds. There were numerous attempts to replicate the study, consistently, only about one third of the studies attempting to demonstrate a self-fulfilling prophecy succeeded, and critics said that the phenomenon did not exist because the support was unreliable. TAQ 2 (752 words) Attribution theory deals with how the social perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events. It examines what information is gathered and how it is combined to form a causal judgement (Fiske, Taylor, 1991). The aim of attribution is to understand how people interpret the words and actions of others and their own behaviour. An experiment by Thibaut and Riecken in 1955 shows how the subject perceives between someone who is on a higher status and of a lower status. In the procedure, the subject interacted with two other persons; one is of higher status than the subject and the other of a lower status. Both the person complied with the request of the subject, but when the subject was asked why each one had complied, the result was higher status compliance was put down as internal reason and external reason for the lowest status persons compliance. Furthermore, his evaluation from before to after the compliance was favoured to the highest status person. This study shows both antecedent and consequences of attributions for behaviour. In this study they adopted the ideas from Heider (1944) and Michotte (1963). It was assumed that the subject makes distinction and decides between internal and external cause for the other persons compliance on the basis of their perceived power. In attributing compliance to internal causes, positive attitudes are credited by the subject to the person. Attributing these qualities to a person has the consequence that the subject tends to like the person. In this experiment, essential element of attribution research is present. The research has hypotheses about the antecedents of causal attribution and the consequences of the subject making particular attributions (Kelley, H. and L. Michela, J.). We tend to perceive that the observed behaviour is due to the qualities of the person, dispositional attribution, rather than due to external force, situational attribution. The passenger who complains about the bus schedule is likely to be regarded as disagreeable rather than in a hurry. A respectful greeting to your manager may be offered because you like her or it may be only because of the superordinate-subordinate situation which exists between you. Heider (1958), who developed the model called the Naà ¯ve Analysis of behaviour noted that people generally tend to perceive that human behaviour is somehow caused, as it can be used by us in predicting the likelihood of this happening again, rather than being due to chance. We can make two attributions; internal attribution, we attribute the behaviour of the person in their personality, character or attitude; and external attribution, the inference that the person is behaving in a certain way because of the situation he or she may be in. Heider also noted that a person’s behaviour particularly the first impression behaviour is so compelling that observers take it at face value and forget to take sufficient account of possible situational causes. When we make attribution, we must analyse the situation by going beyond the information given about the disposition of others and yourself as well as the environment and how it may be causing the person to behave in such a manner. However, order and predictability are the consequences in making inferences and inferences lead to behaviour. Once someone is given an initial label based on his observed behaviour, the label sticks and becomes self-validating as that person will continue to behave in the way now expected of him. Another attribution theory is Kelly’s covariation model: he developed a logical model for judging whether a particular action should be attributed to the person or stimulus. There are three types of causal information which influence our judgements; consistency, consensus and distinctiveness. Consistency is when cause and effect regularly occur together; for example you may notice that you felt irritable in the morning after a late night out with little sleep, in fact irritability might occur every time you have a very late night. Others also reported the late-night irritability syndrome, this means you are not unique then the consensus is high. Distinctiveness is whether or not a particular behaviour occurred in the same way in the similar situation. According to Kruglanski (1977), people do not just naively come across situation but bring to each social situation a wide range of experiences and prior knowledge. This theory lacks of distinction between intentional and uninten tional behaviour; intentional behaviour occurs when there is a desire for an outcome. Covariance treats explanation as a cognitive activity, no accounting for the social functions of explanations such as clarifying something for another person (Malle, B.F., 2003). TAQ 3 (165 words) TAQ 4 (190 words) Self-presentational behaviour is any behaviour intended to create, modify, or maintain an impression of ourselves in the minds of others. Whenever we attempt to lead people to think of us in a particular way, we are engaging in self-presentation. Self-presentation is very important aspect of our lives. How do we make others to believe that we possess various characteristic plays a huge role on our outcome in life. Self-presentation is a pervasive feature of our social life. However, self-presentational concerns also lead people to engage in behaviours that enhance their appearance but simultaneously jeopardize their own physical well-being and it even underlies self-destructive behaviour. Self-monitoring allows human to measure their behavioural outcomes against a set of standards. Small children typically do not have the ability to self-monitor, it develops overtime. The ability to both understand and internalize other’s behavioural expectations is a developmental social milestone that will occur in middle childhood. Both self-presentation and self-monitoring shaped me to the person I am today. I was able to convince people; my wife; my friends; and my colleagues that I am worthy of their love, their friendship, their trust and their respect. TAQ 5 (156 words) There are many factors involved, such as proximity, similarity, and physical attractiveness in the formation of relationships. It was found out that the friendliest person were those who live near on another. â€Å"Those who play together stay together†, in other words those who share similar interest in leisure activities form relationship. People of the same race, gender, age, and social background are likely to form a relationship. Person who are either similar â€Å"birds of the same feather flocks together† or that â€Å"opposites attract† forms a relationship. Physical attractiveness is also an important factor in formation of relationship, when we first meet someone their physical appearance is the first thing that will strike us before anything else. Jade’s date didn’t work out for her because as I have said above, her date didn’t have any of the factors. He faked his photo, his description and his job so Jade and his date had nothing in common basically. TAQ 6 (235 words) The main assumption of the social exchange theory (SET) is that individuals try to maximise their rewards; affection and attention and reduce their costs; time and effort. SET helps us understand the cost and rewards of relationships and it helps us predict how to keep and sustain relationships. However, it also has some weaknesses, SET neglects culture context. SET is based on a reward concept but not all cultures seek for a reward in a relationship. SET makes people seems individualistic and a reward seeking. Equity theory extends the SET, it takes into account that rewards need to be proportionate, this is based in the assumption that people expect that a relationship to be fair. People will feel satisfied if what they put into the relationship is comparable with what they get out of it. Aspects of equity theory were unable to predict whether a relationship will be maintained or break down. According to Balance theory we tend to be friends or to choose friends those people who help us maintain our balance view of the world. One simple advantage is that it recognizes that people sometimes notice inconsistent cognitions and that this inconsistency can lead to attitude change. It predicts how people will react to imbalanced and balanced situations. However, one consistent problem is that the predictions don’t work very well. Balance theory does not make any prediction about how imbalanced will be resolved. TAQ 7 (110 words) Mechanical failure is when two suitable people of goodwill and good nature grow apart, where communication may be poor or interactions go badly is the most common cause of relationship breakdown. Long term relationships often fail due to lack of common activities, as well as individual hobbies, interest and friends. If both partners do not grow equally one partner might feel that they are carrying the load. In Scenario 2 the youngest child is now completing his GCSE, couples shares responsibility in rearing their children and this is their common interest. Since their younger son is becoming less of their common interest, it can become a cause of the problem. TAQ 8 (219 words) Stages of Dissolution (Ducks Phase Model) Stage I The Intrapsychic phase Thinking about relationship in private, beginning to consider there is a problem in the relationship. Stage II The Dyadic phase The dissatisfaction is discussed. This is when the troubled partner confronts the other and tries to correct these problems. Stage III The Social phase At this point the decision is made by one or both partners to leave the relationship. The breakdown is made public. Stage IV The Grave Dressing phase A post-relationship view of the breakup is established; both of the partners go through self-justification; protecting self-esteem and rebuilding life towards new relationships. In 2006 Duck and Rollie added a fifth stage, Resurrection phase, when individual evaluate the relationship and attempting to re-instigate the relationship again. One of the strength of this model is that it gives some insight into possible techniques that can be used so that the relationship can be repaired. It also has face validity as it is an account of relationship breakdown that we can relate to our own and others experiences Brehm and Kassin (1996) sees the limitation of this study in that the women are more likely to stress unhappiness and incompatibility as reasons for breakup while men blame lack of sex suggesting gender differences that the model does not consider. TAQ 9 (93 words) Love relationships are one of the greatest sources of happiness and meaning for every human being. Even the strongest relationships get off track sometimes because of the stresses of daily living, and mismatch expectations. The HEAL (Hear-Empathize-Act-Love) technique to repair damaged relationships by replacing defensive self-protection with compassionate presence and loving connection (Greenberg, M., 2013). Hear – to listen to your partner, stay present and be there. Empathize – allow your partner’s experience deeply affect you, share the feelings. Act address the concerns and show willingness to change. Love – feel and express unconditional love. References Asch, (1946) as cited in https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=U7oeILtwkxoCprintsec=frontcoversource=gbs_ge_summary_rcad=0#v=onepageqf=false  Date last accessed: 22 January 2015 Brehm and Kassin (1996) as cited in DLcentre workbook Module 6 Social Interaction Level 3. Cowan Curtis, 1994 as cited in http://www.understandingprejudice.org/apa/english/page9.htm  Date last accessed: 26 Feb 2015 Cozzarelli, Wilkinson, Tagler, 2001 as cited in http://www.understandingprejudice.org/apa/english/page9.htm  Date last accessed: 26 Feb 2015 Eysenc, M. (2002). Simply Psychology. [Online]. 2nd Edition.  East Sussex: Psychology Press. Accessed 22 January 2015.  Available at:  https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=U7oeILtwkxoCprintsec=frontcoversource=gbs_ge_summary_rcad=0#v=onepageqf=false Greenberg, M., 2013. Four Steps to Relationship Repair With The H-E-A-L Technique. [online].  Available at: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-mindful-self-express/201304/four-steps-relationship-repair-the-h-e-l-technique  Accessed: 12 February 2015 Heider (1944) as cited in http://www.communicationcache.com/uploads/1/0/8/8/10887248/attribution_theory_and_research.pdf   Kelley, H. and L. Michela, J. Attribution Theory and Research. [online].  Available at: http://www.communicationcache.com/uploads/1/0/8/8/10887248/attribution_theory_and_research.pdf  Accessed: 19 March 2015 Kruglanski, 1977 as cited in DLCentre Ltd., 2009/11 Module 6. 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