Saturday, August 31, 2019
The centre of the case is a problem between tow management member, Wolfgang Keller (managing director) and Dimitri Brodsky (commercial director). Keller is superior of Dimitri and he heÃ¢â¬â¢s not satisfied with DimitriÃ¢â¬â¢s performance since he joined the company two years ago. Keller now is considering three options: firing Brodsky, helping him to improve his performance or reorganizing the company around Brodsky by splitting marketing and sales. Wolfgang Keller is 34 years old. He studied at Harward and University of Cologne. His first job was at a Gemran food manufacturer firm. First, he was a strategic planner there, but soon he became a general manager at an Ukrainian subsidiary and after he got promoted to be a general manager at a German subsidiary. He achieved his first big successes there and gained reputation in his profession. After 2 years he switched to the Ukrainean subsidiary of KÃ ¶nigsbrau, a beer amnufacturer, as managing director. There he also made success by increasing the subsidiaryÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings to Ã¢â ¬7 million per year. He made significant changes through restructuring the marketing strategy and hiring new top-management group. The top-management in Munich was also impressed by his activity. Recently, Keller spent two month in Brazil to manage a start-up joint venture. KÃ ¶nigsbrauÃ¢â¬â¢s Ukrainean subsidiary was founded 12 years before KÃ ¶nigsburg aquired it. After, a man named Vladimir Antonov took the title of chaiman. Keller could get his job, because his predecessor had bad relationship with Antonov, so he was transfered back to Germany. KellerÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Antonov is good, but Antonov misses being involved into daily operations. The strategy of the company is to consolidate and strenghten the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s distributors by offering heavy support. The strategy also includes heavy advertising, quality services and high margins. In the Ukrainian liqueur market personal relationships and trust between the company and distributors is essential. Another challange is converting people from vodka and cheap beers towards premium beers. KellerÃ¢â¬â¢s intention was to strenhgten relationships and create personal contacts with the distributors. Dimitri Brodsky is 10 years older than Keller and he has a very different personality. He is a cultivated and intellectual person. Before this firm he was a commercial director at a Ukrainian subsidiary of a US toiletries firm, but he also has experience from the United States and France. He was hired to balance the youngÃ managers at KÃ ¶nigsbrau. He has a good but distant relationship with Antonov. The problem between Brodsky and Keller is the very different uptake about how to handle the employees and the business partners. Keller prefers closer relationship with the employees, because he thinks this helps them to be more loyal and enthusiastic. Furthermore, he doensÃ¢â¬â¢t avoid personal topics. With the costumers and partners he encourages the same attitude, because he thinks itÃ¢â¬â¢s very important and essential for a business relationship. Brodsky, on the contrary, prefers formality and distance. He also beleives in separation between the pesonal and professional life and he deals with the employees and costumers this way. The source of problem between h im and Keller is this different attitude. Keller thinks that Brodsky is just reluctant to take care of everyday business. However, Keller seems inpatient and action-oriented from BrodskyÃ¢â¬â¢s angle.
One One can learn a great deal about the Boreal Shield by taking a trip to Sudbury. It is a city in the Boreal Shield region where the lumber and mining industries dominate its economy. The paper and pulp mills and the Nickel mine are symbols of this great city. Also, the re-greening program at Sudbury is a success, making the city unique in Canada. Sudbury continues to grow and strive from the benefits of the lumber and mining industries and the world-own re-greening program. Sudbury is famous for its mines that are filled with many types of ores. After the ores are mined, they become valuable minerals such as nickel and copper. It all started when Tom Flanagan, who is a blacksmith, discovered copper sulphide while constructing the Canadian Pacific Railway back in the 1883. (Noda) These copper sulphides were believed to have come from a meteorite that had crashed near Sudbury 1. 8 billion years ago. It also created a crater, which is now called the Sudbury basin. Today, two big companies, INCO and Falcon Bridge, are the most well known for mining the valuable minerals in Sudbury. INCO has been operating for twenty more years while Falcon Bridge has been around for less then twenty years. (Aelick) These mining companies provide jobs to Canadians living in the Boreal Shield. INCO employed nearly 20000 Canadian workers to dig and mine for the ores. Their jobs require them to go down to the open pits, which are approximately 1. 2 km long and 180 m deep. Each time they mine, they take out about 60 million tones of ore. Each ore mined only has 2. 5% of valuable minerals usable. Other minerals in the ore include 1. 2% of silver, 1. % of copper and 97. 5% of unusable waste. In average, mines can produce 462,000 kg of nickel and 116, 800 tonnes of copper per day. The mining industry is very important to the economy in Sudbury because nickel mined there are worth about 1. 5 billion dollars. That is also about 15% of the world's production of nickel. In Ontario, about 60% of copper is mainly found in Sudbury. Over the years of developing INCO, fewer employees work for the company. Since now, there are only 5000 employees left because technology and machines are built to mine for them. With better technology, the mining companies in Sudbury can be more productive and competitive in the global economy. (Aelick) It is reasonable to say that the forest industries survive well in the Boreal Shield because of the plentiful lumbers in the area. The trees near Sudbury are grown really slowly because of its low precipitation and long winters. The types of trees are mostly white spruce, balsam fir, black spruce, jack pine and tamarack. Lumber productions and Pulp and Paper industries use about 80% of the technique of clear cutting on the forest because it is a lot cheaper than selective cutting. Wallace) They are environment friendly because they replanted trees after cutting so new forests can grow. Another reason why the forest industries are doing so well is because they use efficient tools. Some machines they use to harvest wood are the feller buncher, skidder and de-limber. The feller buncher is used to grab and cut down trees. A skidder is a machine that pulls the wood out of the ground. A de-limber is another machine that snaps off the limbs of the trees. (DOMTAR) Paper and Pulp Mills is a company that uses chips of wood to create wood pulp. They use about 2000 tonnes of wood chips and cook it as it turns into pulp and paper. The wastes go into lagoons. They will drain it out to collect solids that are to be sold as fertilizers. (Ramsay) Today, approximately 95% of Canada's papers are made out of wood pulp. This pulp can create different sorts of papers such as newspapers, paper towel, magazine paper and cardboard, which may be sold to other parts of Canada. The success from the re-greening program in Sudbury is well known and complimented by many people. Many years ago, Mrs. O'Leary's cow accidentally kicked over a lamp, which caused a fire and destroyed most of Chicago. This affected Sudbury because of the sulphur dioxide blown from Chicago by the wind and it destroyed much of Sudbury's vegetations. Vegetations have started to grow again. It has been hard to get rid the sulphur dioxide. Later in the 1969's super stacks were made to lift the poisonous gas to a height of 381 meters high. (Anonymous) As soon as the super stacks were created, the citizens want to re-green Sudbury. They started to plant thousands of trees but hardly any of them survived. They thought of new ways to plant and finally they experimented with limestone. It worked! As a result, they hired many students who were looking for part-time jobs. At one time, there were 200 students and 200 miners helping to re-green Sudbury. They would spend their summer pulling dead limbs, hauling countless bags of lime fertilizer and grass seed through Sudbury. Because of its success in re-greening, Sudbury won 4 national and international environmental improvement awards. One of them for highly respected commendation from the United Nations. (Globe and Mail) Along with the mining and forestry industries, the re-greening program in Sudbury allowed the city to be an important center for activities in the Boreal Shield. The mining and forestry created many jobs for Canadians and provide many products to the world. The re-greening program helped promote Sudbury and Canada to be environmental friendly places. All of this created a great place to live called Sudbury.
Friday, August 30, 2019
1. Despite the difficulties of making predictions, many people confidently make assertions about what will happen in the future because of various types of biases, constraints, perceptions, and expectations. Each person has their own experiences, influences, tastes, personalities, attitudes, and much more, creating unique perspectives that influence perception, objectivity, and rationality. As such, perceptions are controlled by three factors: the perceiver, the object being perceived, and the context in which people perceive.People align these factors to their own standards and consequentially, they always think they are Ã¢â¬Å"right. Ã¢â¬ This results in an above-average affect, where people almost always believe they are above average. This affect causes people to confidently make assertions despite the level of objective difficulty. 2. There are various perceptual and decision-making errors that cloud the judgments of many intelligent and powerful people. For example, when Ric k Wagoner predicted that bankruptcy would result in the Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦liquidation of the companyÃ¢â¬ (195), he may have used general impressions of bankruptcy to contaminate factual information.As such, he was a victim of the Halo Effect. His negative perceptions of bankruptcy clouded any positive indicators of its factual effectiveness. When investment analyst Marc Farber incorrectly predicted a slowdown in the Chinese market, he was perhaps affected by a hindsight bias. Having experienced so many market slowdowns in the past, such as the various recessions in the United States in addition to international examples like Japan, he likely thought he was a better analyst than he actually was.The hindsight bias prevented him from learning from the past; he was likely less skeptical about his own predictive skills than he should have been. When Vice President Joe Biden incorrectly predicted, Ã¢â¬Å"More people are going to be put to work this summerÃ¢â¬ (195), he was possibly a vi ctim of an overconfidence bias. This confidence may have prevented him from understanding the facts on employment, jumping to an optimistic conclusion prematurely. In addition, he may have been under substantial pressure to inspire the American public in light of the ongoing recession.When Robert Prechter incorrectly predicted, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦stock prices will go a lot lowerÃ¢â¬ (195), he may have looked at initial market conditions without considering the macro perspective of market durability. As such, he was a victim of an anchoring bias, where he used only an initial assessment for his prediction without considering long-term data. Other types of biases include selective perception, contrast effects, stereotyping, and risk aversion, amongst others. 3.It is difficult to make accurate predictions because the only way we view the world is through our perceptions; what is to one person may not be to another. The key in many situations is to objectively understand how and why peopl e have certain perceptions. This understanding will allow for more accurate assessments, leading to better choices in life. It is also difficult to make predictions because of the complexity of communication. This complexity can sometimes cause people to overthink, such as when two people are dating, always second guessing their actions and their thoughts.It is often unadvisable to Ã¢â¬Å"overthinkÃ¢â¬ situations where there may not be a clear explanation. Further, overthinking in one direction can harbor unwarranted negativity or inaccurate optimism. Lastly, there are many factors that people have no control over, such as plane crashes, sudden sickness, and forces of nature. These factors can cause even the most well thought out predictions to be inaccurate. As a result, people must always be prudent about what they assert. There must be evidence coupled with intrapersonal skills that can assure its objectivity.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Financial Bubbles - Assignment Example The increase in demand pushed the price of this flower to the sky, leading to market maneuvers of artificial scarcity and artificial price hike. As they say, a bubble bursts when the investors start minting money out of it. Soon when people realized this situation they started selling their stocks and the large contractor started dishonoring their contracts thus resulting in the crash of the bulb market and the bubble burst/ Tech Bubble Ã¢â¬â 1999 This bubble is also known as the Dot.Com bubble. It happened when the technology market boomed and the internet business was thought to be the star of future profit. NASDAQ soared and so did these internet companies. But then in the late 1999 and the beginning of 2000 saw a crash of this internet bubble when the companies themselves could not take the over burden of these demands and showed losses that very high and pushed the index to a shocking low level, thus resulting in a bubble burst.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Fostering Student Success - Research Paper Example g concerns, to wit: (1) all aspects of the issue or problem; (2) what is known, what needs to be known, and how it can become known; (3) what quantitative or qualitative data is needed; (4) who will have the responsibility of obtaining the data about the issue or problem; (5) a formulation of a series of potential solutions to the issue or problem; (6) a selection of the most reasonable solution with supporting rationales; and finally, (7) a definition of how oneÃ¢â¬â¢s decision will be evaluated. Various cultures have stressed the importance of education in the realm of an ever increasing competitive environment. Qualifications and competencies of individuals are developed with the advancement in theoretical and practical expertise. Higher education poses strategic differences from high school making students virtually insufficiently prepared for its diverse challenges. Fostering student success should therefore be the focus of school administrators to ensure that academic life would prove to be worth every studentÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts. Students are expected to take accountability and responsibility for their academic performance through prioritizing compliance to requirements. In a book written by Gary L. Kramer (2007) entitled Fostering student success in the campus community, the author indicated several measures to direct students towards the triumphant path. Kramer averred that Ã¢â¬Å"addressing changing student demographics and needsÃ¢â¬ ¦ aligning institutional and student expectations, connecting student-oriented services systemically, organizing and fostering student services for learning, and creating and delivering services for studentsÃ¢â¬ ¦(are key issues) to achieve success on campusÃ¢â¬ (Kramer, 2007, xxix). The research aims to proffer issues which focus on the participation and involvement in student study groups as part of organizing and fostering student services for learning. As required, the discourse would provide a discussion of the following issues,
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Critically assess the value, to a shareholder, of the information in the Finacial Statement - Essay Example As of 2014, M&S owns 798 stores in UK, 455 stores in 54 international territories in Asia, Middle East and Europe and offers direct employment to more than 85,813 employees both in UK, and in stores located around the world. Despite recent economic recession and due to intricate market scenarios, M&S is still able to maintain steady sales growth in the recent past years. Thus, despite the difficult market situation, M&S is able to maintain a stable sales growth, mainly due to its strong business concept, which centers on its sustainability, innovation and quality policies. Although the products offered by M&S are somewhat costlier than those of its competitors and in the customary supermarket scenario, M&S is still able to attract a sizeable number of customers towards its brands. M&S is concentrating on the global market, particularly in the developing economies such as India and China, and this strategy helps to improve its international sales revenues as evidenced by the following graphs: M&S offers clothing under its own brands and M&S Simply Food shops are operated as supermarket chains. These retail chains offer a distinct , assorted variety of specialty products under M&S own brands. Financial statements published by a company are evaluated both internally by the management and externally by the creditors, investors and regulatory agencies. ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluation of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial statements chiefly pertains to the functioning of various sections of the company. For decision-making purposes, these financial statements offer unique financial information and specific reports to the top management of the company. External users use these financial statements to make a decision about whether to invest in the company or not. The analysis of financial statements includes the application and analysis of various techniques and tools to extract useful investment decision from
Monday, August 26, 2019
Seven brides for seven brothers - Assignment Example The setting of the story in Oregon in 1850, a time of expansion to the west in those territories in conjunction with the notion of Manifest Destiny, gives us a background with which to understand the situation facing the brothers in the place, as basically rough men who had no access to women, and who were basically frontier people staking out the land for their own. The brothers were basically outsiders who were isolated and were venturing out into new territory. The place also was characterized by the relative absence of the rule of law, so that the abduction of the women to be the brides of the six brothers makes sense. The time and place setting of the story contextualizes the way the brothers were socially formed, why they were in Oregon at the time, and gives a context with which to understand their actions relative to the women (US History, 2015; Oregon Secretary of State, 2014; SparkNotes LLC, 2014). The men here are characterized as brutes unfit for female company, though Adam was an exception and was lucky to have gained the heart of Milly so easily, on just a single meeting. The six brothers were portrayed as probably representing the large mass of men who could not find wives, and were relegated to their lonely existences out in the frontier. That said, the women were characterized not as helpless creatures in need of men, but rather as being domesticators and bearers of culture and refinement. Though the men abducted their wives, and Adam put Milly on his list of items to shop so to speak, the women had their own mind and had some control over the actions of the men (IMDb, 2015). There is an element of the immediate in the live musical that is not present in the filmed musical, as can be gleaned from the Ellen Eccles staging of the movie. The live musical captures the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s spirit to the extent that the former faithfully reproduces the excitement and the special
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Theatre - Essay Example He had what was described as a rough childhood as he was often described as being effeminate which his father, an alcoholic did not approve of, and his mother was described as being bipolar. Tennessee had a close relationship with his sister Ã¢â¬ËRoseÃ¢â¬â¢ who later in life was discovered to be schizophrenic and spent much of her life in mental institutions. It was the case that TennesseeÃ¢â¬â¢s fear of falling into madness would plague him in later life and ultimately lead him into alcoholism and drug abuse. Rose ultimately had a lobotomy performed on her which left her more or less docile for the rest of her life. When Tennessee was young, his family moved to St. Louis where he attended Soldan High School . It became clear at an early age that Tennessee was a gifted writer and won a number of small awards for his short stories and plays. Tennessee attended the University of Misouri, Washington University, and the University of Iowa where he completed his undergraduate studies but by the late 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s he was studying and living in New York City. Probably what proved to be most influential on the writings of Tennessee Williams was living in New Orleans where in the late 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s he began writing a Streetcar named Desire arguably one of his most famous works. It was during this time that Tennessee began a homosexual relationship wit a man named Frank Merlo. As one recognizes from the works of Tennessee Williams it is the case that he often used alcoholism, mental health issues, and homosexuality as cornerstones of his works. However it was during the time that Tennessee was living with Merlo that he arguably completed his most notable works, arguably this is owing to the relative stability that this relationship brought to his life. According to the library at thinkquest (2010) it is the case that Williams had published thirty eight plays, nine works of fiction, and
Saturday, August 24, 2019
The Triangle of Trade in the Atlantic Ocean During Colonial Times - Research Paper Example Also known by the name Gustavus Vassa, his written account of his journey across the Atlantic Ocean has survived both himself and the period of slavery in the United States. What is written above, and the rest of the writings in his book, describe part of the journey on the harrowing Ã¢â¬Å"middle passageÃ¢â¬ , the second of three common routes and passages aboard an ocean ship, and part of the trade route commonly known to history as the triangular trade. There were many reasons why Great Britain, as it was known at the time, chose to allow its citizens to settle in what would eventually become the United States of America. Some came for religious reasons. Other settlers boarded ships out of Great Britain seeking fortune and a better way of life. The chief driving force, however, was a movement known as mercantilism, with the belief that a nation could get rich only at the expense of another1. This principle quickly spread, and before long, Great Britain realized that it had an al most unending source of raw materials in the lands known as the colonies2. The exchange of goods, or trade, has been a staple system of the world for as long as history has been written, and even before written records occurred. The classic scenario of one person or nation having what another desired, and vice versa, has made for some of the most interesting points of history. Wars have been fought, treaties signed, and lands conquered, all for the reasoning that one group or nation wanted what another possessed. Trade was not done any differently between the colonies that would become the United States and the rest of the world in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Trade and commerce in the colonies grew and prospered, despite numerous obstacles. There was almost no currency in the colonies except for a small amount of gold and silver, and little to no information about what could be found in foreign ports or any lands abroad3. Shopkeepers were virtually in the dark about wh at went out outside of their own towns and cities. Information from what could be found in England was usually reliable, due in part to the Navigation Act of 1696 passed by the King, which declared any trade between the colonies and any other country was illegal, along with giving broad powers to customs agents in the colonies and allowing the holds of ships to be searched for illegal trade goods4. The simplest explanation for trade during this time would be that the colonies exported raw materials to Europe, such as furs, lumber, and fruit, and in turn, Europe sent manufactured goods to the colonies5. However, explanations are rarely simple, and indeed, the trade routes between the different continents across the Atlantic Ocean grew increasingly well-traveled as more and more goods were shipped from one country to another. Though illegal, traders continued to trade goods with countries such as France, Spain, Portugal, and Holland to gain greater profits6. By far, though, the most c ommon trade route referred to when mentioning trade between the British colonies across the Atlantic Ocean is the triangular trade route, which traded raw materials, goods, and slave cargoes between the colonies, Great Britain, and West Africa. The profits made from the global trade of sugar, tea, and coffee were the driving force behind the triangular trade, goods and products which had serviced the world for centuries7. Colonial entrepreneurs, especially in New England, built and operated ships
Friday, August 23, 2019
Role of Young Adult Novels in Promoting Self-Acceptance - Literature review Example The present research has identified that young adult (YA) novels walk teens through a world of imagination, mingled with a touch of reality, in which they can align themselves with intellectually rich characters that best describe their hidden aspirations, boost their self-image, and hence carve out a world of their own with the aid of the knowledge thus acquired in order to reach out to their "self".Such is the world of fantasy and reality that gives foundations to the growing teens to conform to their true "self". Self-acceptance goes a long way to boost self-esteem, thus empowering young adults to become, and believe in, what they are. On the other hand, those who fail to recognize their true self, end up concealing their emotions, and subduing their natural talents in order to fit in the society, which they live in. Unfortunately, in their effort to conform to the society's expectations, such teens often tend to compromise on their true "self" and remain ignorant of their identit y. Self-acceptance requires conscious effort, and courage to look into one's own eyes, but once done, it empowers teens to become useful members of society.Ã Teens are particularly vulnerable to the expectations of the society to conform to its norms, which may not be in line with their need of self-acceptance, and, instead, may influence them negatively by taking away their freedom to act independently. The need for self-acceptance and society's conflicting expectations are beautifully illustrated in several young adult novels: The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, Stargirl by Jerry Spinelli, Uglies by Scott Westerfeld. These novels deal with the delicate and complex phenomenon of self-acceptance in a quite sophisticated manner.Ã Ponyboy, the protagonist of the novel The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, is able to discover his true self after going through many trials that may affect him negatively. The novel gained its popularity among young adults for its fine depiction of violence in Ame rican schools. Ponyboys conversations with Cherry, a Soc girl, and Randy Anderson, a Soc boy, help Ponyboy get a better look at practical life.
A National PE Curriculum Model or a Program Framework - Research Paper Example SEPEP is distinguished from any other physical education programs mainly by its focus on the staging of a sports tournament. Throughout the program, the students organize and manage the sporting competition. It is expected that they would learn about sports effectively at the same time gain practical and theoretical insights with respect to the roles and dynamics of sports in real life. In this vein, one also recalls the main characteristic and goal of the authentic model, which is to teach sports by creating an authentic setting and experience for learners. Particularly, there is an emphasis on the diversity of roles. The authentic model makes sure that students do not merely participate as players but also take the role of referee, scorekeepers, record takers, performance reporters, coach and team managers. The main difference, however, is that the SEPEP framework is broader for the students with the added responsibility of having to organize the sporting event itself. This is part icularly important especially when one takes into account a recognized theory that, in order for physical education to be effective Ã¢â¬â that it exerts a meaningful impact to the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ life - it must be taught within the social context as enacted in the community (Burrows, Macdonald & Wright, p. 64). The idea is that students are in a better position to learn concepts such as teamwork, fitness and fair play, among others. The SEPEP as teaching framework is an interesting model. It entails a different approach with respect to the teacher and the students; roles.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Problem gambling Essay She took one last look out the window as they drove away, the tears streaming down her face. At the age of four, her world had fallen apart. KarinaÃ¢â¬â¢s life started out as a perfect middle-class family, and soon turned into a broken mess. They had everything, a perfect house in a really nice part of the city, a nice car; everything was wonderful. As Karina got older, she began to notice things werenÃ¢â¬â¢t perfect. Her dad was never there. He was always out gambling in one way or another. Ã¢â¬Å"As time progressed we lost the car, and other possessions due to my dadÃ¢â¬â¢s gambling problem. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not only about gambling and the money. When people gamble, they do other stupid things, he had an affair. My parents decided to get a divorce. My dad didnÃ¢â¬â¢t argue, in fact he said that for the safety of our family it would probably be better because a lot of people were angry at him for what he owed them. It was all because of gambling and snowballed into a mess that could have been really dangerous for my mom and me had we stayed around. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sad that my life played out in that way at such a young age, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s very unfortunate. I know that if he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have had gambling around none of those things would have taken place and we would probably still be the family that we were, but unfortunately thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not how it played out. Ã¢â¬ Although many people think that legalizing gambling will have a great effect on the economy, I think the negative effects are much more evident. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s views on subjects often have to do with their ethics. Ethics, as defined by Seiler and Beall, are an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s system of moral principles. My ethics lead me to believe that gambling is wrong because I was raised to believe that my family is more important than economic wealth. As it is evident in the story above, gambling can have a major negative effect on someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, and so it is too much of a risk to legalize this dangerous game. Three main reasons that gambling should be kept illegal are that gambling creates tension among the family members, gambling increases crime in the society, and the addiction to gambling is too great for many to overcome. The first reason that gambling should be kept illegal is that gambling creates tension among the family members as the money that should be used for the family is being spent on gambling. Even though gambling might, in some cases, bring money into the state and local economies, there are side effects to having a casino down the street. Forshey (1998) states, Ã¢â¬Å"The gambling jobs, taxes, and recreational values provided by the industry cannot compensate for the social pain-in the form of bankruptcies, white-collar crime, divorce, a compromised political process, an increase in alcoholism-it inflicts. Ã¢â¬ The drain of a working personÃ¢â¬â¢s money that wagerÃ¢â¬â¢s his or her paycheck and loses is not compensated with the amount of jobs a casino brings to a community. Gambling is a greedy industry that produces nothing more than empty hopes, empty dreams and empty wallets. Anderson states, Ã¢â¬Å"Proponents argue that state lotteries are an effective way to raise taxes painlessly. But the evidence shows that legalized gambling often hurts those who are poor and disadvantaged. Ã¢â¬ Without casino gambling, many local citizens would spend their money on groceries or clothes, instead of reducing their savings on gambling. As William Thompson states in his article Ã¢â¬Å"Gambling: A Controlling Substance,Ã¢â¬ It [gambling] is a pleasure, like other entertainment, but in that regard, it is an expensive pleasure. Ã¢â¬ Thompson then continues with this thought: Ã¢â¬Å"Politicians must recognize that the benefits of gambling are bounded by market structures. Gambling money does not grow on trees. It comes out of the pockets or real people, who otherwise would have spent it on something else. Ã¢â¬ All of this evidence shoes that gambling should be kept illegal because it creates tension among the family members as the money that should be used for the family is being spent on gambling. A second reason that gambling should be kept illegal is that gambling increases the amount of crime within a society. Gambling often becomes associated with crime, a relationship that seems quite understandable. Not only does gambling continue to be illegal in some forms which makes it a crime to participate in, but also the second half of the issue occurs when gambling increases the amount of street crime in a surrounding area. Crime rates have been significantly higher in places that allow gambling. Kindt states, Ã¢â¬Å"Atlantic City showed a jump in crime when gambling was legalized. The city went from 50th in the nation in per capita crime to first. Problem gamblers may also become more likely to have financial troubles and use illegal activities as a way to pay off their debts and keep up their unhealthy habit. Ã¢â¬ This graphic shows a report done by the U. S. Department of Justice studied people that were arrested in Las Vegas and Des Moines, Iowa. The results show many connections between gambling and crime. Ã¢â¬Å"More than 30 percent of pathological gamblers who had been arrested in Las Vegas and Des Moines reported having committed a robbery within the past year, nearly double the percentage for low-risk gamblers. Nearly one-third admitted that they had committed the robbery to pay for gambling or to pay gambling debts. In addition, about 13 perfect said they had assaulted someone to get money. Ã¢â¬ As is evident, gambling should be kept illegal because it increases the amount of crime within a society. We will now look at the last reason why gambling should be kept illegal. Finally, a third reason that gambling should be kept illegal is that the addiction to gambling is too great for many to overcome, resulting in psychological problems for the gambler. Some people argue that if a person wants to gamble badly enough they will do it. They say that one will be able to control his or herself and only gamble when itÃ¢â¬â¢s appropriate, but gambling is an addiction that some people canÃ¢â¬â¢t escape. The addiction is a nationwide problem, and as much a part of gambling as the dice. As an article in the Omaha World Herald states, Ã¢â¬Å"Problem gambling is the urge to gamble despite harmful negative consequence or the desire to stop, and pathological gambling involves wagering to such excess that it has a severe negative effect on the gamblerÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Ã¢â¬ Getting hooked on gambling comes mainly from the action and thrill, an experience chemically the same as those with inhaled substances. They fall under the spell of action. Action is an aroused, joyous state involving excitement, tension, and anticipation of the outcome of a gambling event. It is the thrill of living on the edge. Gambling has little to do with money and everything to do with the feelings of a gambler. William Thompson states, Ã¢â¬Å"People will lie to themselves, also in calculating the money because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to tell themselves that they were foolish about gambling. Ã¢â¬ Problem gamblers describe gambling as Ã¢â¬Å"highsÃ¢â¬ similar to that experienced from many drug substances. Some experience these sensations when just thinking about gambling. How is a person supposed to avoid gambling if he or she is constantly being surrounded with opportunities to place bets and be involved in the Ã¢â¬Å"actionÃ¢â¬ ? As Frey suggests casinos increase the number of problem gamblers, and make it that much more difficult to stop for those already addicted. In order to stop the number of pathological gamblers from increasing, the amount of gambling in the United States must decrease as a whole. Pathological gamblers were twice as likely to describe their general health as fair to poor over the past two years and were more likely to acknowledge mental or emotional problems. Rates of alcohol and drug dependence, job loss, and bankruptcy were also significantly higher for pathological gamblers relative to non-gamblers. According to Weinstock and Meyers, Ã¢â¬Å" Almost 20 percent of the people diagnosed as pathological gamblers file for bankruptcy compared to the less than 5 percent of those in the general population. Ã¢â¬ Percentage of Population with Gambling Problems In order to stop the number of pathological gamblers from increasing, the amount of gambling in the United States must decrease as a whole. As is evident in this bar graph the amount of people with gambling disorders has greatly increased. According to Weinstock and Meyers, Ã¢â¬Å"Recent studies have found that approximately 2 percent of Americans have had severe levels of disordered gambling at some point in their lifetime. Alarmingly, the rate in the Mid-South is even higher. Studies with Mississippi and Louisiana reveal that about 5 percent of the residents in Mississippi have a gambling problem, while in New Orleans, Louisiana 8 percent of the population reported significant problems because of their gambling. Ã¢â¬ Gambling should be kept illegal because the addiction to gambling is too great for many, even adolescents to overcome. According to Welte, Barnes, Tidwell, and Hoffman, Ã¢â¬Å"Over 2% of U. S. adolescents have experienced problem gambling (i. e. , sub-clinical pathological gambling) in the past year. Females have a . 1% problem gambling rate, and males a 4. 2% problem gambling rate within the past year. Ã¢â¬ If we donÃ¢â¬â¢t put a stop to this now the future of pathological gambling will continue. Regrettably, these pathological gamblers will most likely have to deal with many adverse life events because of their addiction. Many problem gamblers are under so much stress, they commit domestic violence or suicide. There are other, less dangerous ways to find entertainment. So many people suffer every day from their addiction to gambling. The United States should put a stop by banning the gambling industry, and therefore eliminating the harmful side effects of legalized gambling. All of this evidence shows that gambling should be kept illegal because the addiction to gambling is far too great for some people to overcome, resulting in psychological problems for the gambler. The negative effects of gambling out-weigh the positive. The tension created among family members, increased crime in society, and the addiction resulting in psychological problems are just too great of a risk for the people of our society to undergo. So the next time you walk into a casino, remember KarinaÃ¢â¬â¢s story and how the gambling may affect your life, because even if youÃ¢â¬â¢re willing to take the chance, odds are the negative effects of gambling will leave you unlucky in life. It is important for all of you to take note of the consequences and refrain from gambling. Staying away from the dangers of gambling, and setting an example to others is extremely important. No matter what type of personality you have, you can be an influence to others and help stop the spread of gambling all over the nation. I want to challenge you that if you know someone that gambles or you yourself gamble share what you know about gambling and try to put a stop to the habit! References: * Anderson, K. Gambling. Gambling Probe Ministries.Retrieved October 31, 2001 from http://www. probe. org/site/c. fdKEIMNsEoG/b. 4219137/k. C8BD/Gambling. htm * Brandt, K. (Personal communication, October 21, 2011) * Forshey, G. E. (1998). Lonely crusade: Fighting the Gambling Industry. The Christian Century. Retrieved October 31, 2011 from http://vnweb. hwwilsonweb. com/hww/results/getResults. jhtml? _DARGS=/hww/results/results_common. jhtml. 35 * Kindt, J. (1994). The Economic Impacts of Legalized Gambling Activities. Drake Law Review, 40 (1), 50-87. Retrieved October 26, 2011 from https://www.ideals. illinois. edu/handle/2142/16297 * Meyers, A. Whelan, J. Weinstock. (June 1998). Gambling: When it is not a Game Anymore. Business Perspectives, 16-22. Retrieved October 27, 2011 from http://www. allbusiness. com/specialty-businesses/291076-1. html * Problem Gambling: Be aware of warning signs. Omaha World Herald. (March, 19, 2010). Retrieved October 23, 2011 from Library. * Seiler, W. J. and Beall, M. L. (2009). Communication and Ethical Behavior. In Communication: Making Connections (8th Ed) (pp. 8-9). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Allyn.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Cooperative Vehicle Safety System for VANETs COOPERATIVE VEHICLE SAFETY SYSTEM FOR VEHICULAR AD-HOC NETWORKS T. Sujitha, Final year M.E(CSE), ABSTRACT Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are a one form of wireless networks used for vehicles communication among themselves on roads. The conventional routing protocols are suitable for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). But itÃ¢â¬â¢s poorly in VANETs. As communication links break often happen in VANETs compare than in MANETs, the reliable routing is more difficult in the VANET. Research work has been done to the routing reliability of VANETs on highways. In this paper, we use the cooperative vehicle safety system for VANETs. The cooperative vehicle safety system helps to capture the future positions of the vehicles and determines the reliable routes preemptively. This paper is the first to propose a cooperative vehicle safety system for VANETs gives quality-of-service (QoS) support in the routing process. A new mechanism is developed to find the most reliable route in the VANET from the source vehicle to the destination vehicle. Through the simulation results, that the proposed scheme s ignificantly give good result compare than other literature survey. Keywords- vehicular ad hoc network (VANET),DSRC, IEEE 802.11,sensor,OBU,RSU. 1.INTRODUCTION Every day, a most of people die, and many people are injured in traffic accidents around the world. The desire to improve road safety information among vehicles to prevent accidents and improve road safety was the main motivation behind the development of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). VANETs are a promising technology to enable communications among vehicles on roads. They are a special form of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) that provide vehicle-to-vehicle communications. It is assumed that each vehicle is equipped with a wireless communication facility to provide ad hoc network connectivity. VANETs tend to operate without an infrastructure, each vehicle in the network can send, receive, and relay messages to other vehicles in the network. Figure 1.1 Structure of Vanet Ad-hoc Networks This way, vehicles can exchange real-time information, and drivers can be informed about road traffic conditions and other travel-related information. The most challenging issue is potentially the high mobility and the frequent changes of the network topology. In VANETs, the network topology could vary when the vehicles change their velocities and/or lanes. These changes depend on the drivers and road situations and are normally not scheduled in advance. Embedded wireless devices are the main components of evolving cooperative active safety systems for vehicles. These systems, which rely on communication between vehicles, deliver warning messages to drivers and may even directly take control of the vehicle to perform evasive maneuvers. The cyber aspects of such applications, including communication and detection of vehicle information are tightly coupled with physical dynamics of vehicles and drivers behavior. Recent research on such cooperative vehicle safety (CVSS) systems has shown that significant performance improvement is possible by coupling the design of the components of the systems that are related to vehicle dynamics with the cyber components that are responsible for tracking other cars and detecting threats. The types of possible actions and warnings in vehicle safety systems range from low-latency collision avoidance or warning systems to moderate-latency system that provide heads up information about possible dangers in the non immediate path of the vehicle. The main differences of these systems are the sources and means of information dissemination and acquisition. In active safety systems, vehicles are required to be continuously aware of their neighborhood of few hundred meters and monitor possible emergency information. This task can be achieved by frequent real time communication between vehicles over dedicated short range communication (DSRC) channel. In addition to inter-vehicle communication; roadside devices may also assist vehicles in learning about their environment by delivering traffic signal or pedestrian related information at intersections. The main requirement of these active safety systems is the possibility of delivering real-time acquired information to and between vehicles at latencies of lower than few hundred milliseconds. Prototypes of such systems are being developed by many automotive manufacturers. 2. EXISTING SYSTEM In DSRC based safety systems, the cyber components are selected so that they meet the requirements of active safety. Nevertheless, the existing designs fall short of supporting a full-fledged CVSS in which a large number of vehicles communicate and cooperate with each other. The main reason behind the issues with the current designs is the level of separation in the design of different components. Later in this paper we describe methods to achieve better performance by further cooperation of the physical and cyber sub-components. In the next subsection we describe existing active safety CVSS systems and their designs. Figure 1.2 Communication in VANET systems. The traditional design of the CVS system, based on the structure depicted, is a straightforward design following the recommendations of an early report by vehicle safety communication consortium (VSCC). According to this report, it is suggested that vehicles should transmit tracking messages every 100ms, to a distance of at least 150m (avg. 250m). Therefore, the message generation module in becomes a periodic process that outputs a sample of the current state of the vehicle in a message every 100msec. The DSRC radio power is set to reach the suggested distance. Given the issues of the above design in crowded networks, several enhancements have recently been proposed to improve the performance of CVS systems beyond the early solutions set forth by VSCC. One such method is the work in  that proposes to fairly allocate transmission power across all cars in a max-min fashion; this method helps reduce the load at every point of a formulated 1-D highway and thus reserves bandwidth for emergency messages with higher priorities. This method assumes a predefined maximum load as the target. In another work, a message dispatcher is proposed to reduce required data rate by removing duplicate elements, here, the idea is that many applications require the same data elements from other vehicles. The message dispatcher at the sender side will group data elements from application layer (i.e., the source) and decides how frequently each data element should be broadcast. The above methods focus on the computing module, as defined in this section, and try to improve its performance through observing the behavior of the application, or by incorporating limited physical process information in the design of the computing module. While the above improvements do enhance the performance of CVS systems, these designs do not consider the mutual effects of computation, communication and physical processes on each other. In this, try to identify such mutual effects and propose a design that uses the knowledge of the tight coupling of cyber and physical processes to the benefit of a CVSS system. DESTINATION SEQUENCED DISTANCE VECTOR (DSDV) DSDV is a proactive protocol that maintains route to all the destinations before requirement of the route. Each node maintains a routing table which contains next hop, cost metric towards each destination and a sequence number that is created by the destination itself. This table is exchanged by each node to update route information. A node transmits routing table periodically or when significant new information is available about some route. Whenever a node wants to send packet, it uses the routing table stored locally. For each destination, a node knows which of its neighbor leads to the shortest path to the destination. DSDV is an efficient protocol for route discovery. Whenever a route to a new destination is required, it already exists at the source. Hence, latency for route discovery is very low. DSDV also guarantees loop-free paths. 3. PROPOSED SYSTEM Cooperative message authentication protocol, which augments the basic short group signature protocol by mitigating the computation overhead in the regular broadcast phase. According to, the verification time for short group signature is 11ms with a 3 GHz Pentium IV system. In a typical public safety application, each vehicle broadcasts safety messages every 300 ms, which implies that each vehicle can at most process messages from other vehicles in a stable system. However, according to the measurement, there may exist as many as 87 vehicles broadcasting messages within the 300m communication range of a receiving vehicle, far exceeding its processing capability. Therefore, we propose a cooperative message authentication protocol to fill the gap between the workload and the processing capability. 3.1 PROTOCOL IMPLEMENTATION RSUs broadcast I-public keys, G-public keys of themselves and their neighbor RSUs with certificates and identities of revoked RSUs in their neighborhoods regularly. Authorities employ benign RSUs around compromised RSUs to implement revocation by regular broadcasting those compromised RSUsÃ¢â¬â¢ identities. When a vehicle detects the hello message, it starts registration by sending its I-public key and the certificate to the RSU if the RSU is not revoked. Normally, a public key should not be encrypted. However, in our system model, each vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s I-public key is unique, so it is also an identifier of the vehicle. We encrypt it to protect vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy. The RSU sends the hash value of the G-private key which plans to be assigned to the vehicle and the signature of the hash value, vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s I-public key and RSUÃ¢â¬â¢s I-public key to the vehicle. RSUÃ¢â¬â¢s I-public key is also unique. The vehicle can identify the RSUÃ¢â¬â¢s legitimacy after it verifies this message because the RSU uses its I-private key in the message. The vehicle encrypts its Npri and the timestamp by using authoritiesÃ¢â¬â¢ public key. Then, it sends the encryption data with the timestamp and the signature of corresponding information, message 4, to the RSU. The encryption of its Npri and the timestamp is a commitment. It can be useed to detect illegitimate users later. Meanwhile, the signature signed by the vehicle binds vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s information and the assigned G-private key. Then, the RSU cannot re-map them because the RSU does not have vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s I-private key. The RSU sends the G-private key to the vehicle. The vehicle finishes registration procedure after it gets a valid G-private key. Then, the RSU stores the information, as in the local database. The signature in the fifth item is the signature that the RSU receives in message. If authorities need the information of a vehicle when there is a dispute, the RSU has to send the vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s corresponding information to authorities. 3.2 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated through network simulator version 2. A cooperative message authentication protocol(CMAP) is presented to alleviate vehicles computation burden. In the protocol, because vehicles share their verification results with each other in a cooperative way, the number of safety messages that each vehicle needs to verify will be reduced greatly. A new research issue of the protocol is how to select verifiers in the city road scenario. Thus, we propose three verifiers selection algorithms, n-nearest method, most-even distributed method and the compound method for the CMAP. Performance metrics are utilized in the simulations for performance comparison. Packet arrival rate The ratio of the number of received data packets to the number of total data packets sent by the source. Energy consumption The energy consumption for the entire network includes transmission energy consumption for both the data and control packets. Average end-to-end delay The average time elapsed for delivering a data packet within a successful transmission. Control overhead The average number of transmitted control bytes per second, including both the data packet header and the control packets. Collision rate The average Collision rate for the entire data transmission from source to destination is much controlled and reduced when compared to the existing protocol. 4. ELLIPTIC CURVE DIGITAL SIGNATURE ALGORITHM ECDSA is Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC)-based implementation of the commonly used digital signature algorithm. ECC provides the same security level as the other discrete logarithm approaches, while the size of the required ECC credentials is much smaller than that of the discrete logarithm systems. The WAVE security service adopt ECDSA-based message authentication for vehicular communications. Two standard elliptic curves namely P-224 and P-256 have been suggested for general purpose message authentications, and certificate authentications in VANETs. A VANET entity is required to transmit periodic safety messages containing its current coordinates, speed, acceleration etc. to the neighboring devices. The typical interval for safety message broadcasts ranges from 100 ms to 300 ms. An authentication scheme has to be incorporated in order to provide reliability and trust for the delivered safety information. Received messages are verified by the receiving entity to ensure the message integrity, and authenticity of senderÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. Unfortunately signature verification incurs a cryptographic processing delay at the verifierÃ¢â¬â¢s end. Although the verification delay for ECDSA is in the order of milliseconds, with hundreds of vehicles in a dense traffic scenario, an OBU would receive an enormous amount of periodic messages per unit time causing a bottleneck to the authentication process at the receiver end. If OBUs are configured to broadcast their periodic messages every 100 ms, under a heavy traffic scenario, many of the safety messages would either be discarded due to the constrained buffer size of the verification process, or accepted without any verification. Therefore in busy traffic hours, a receiver of vehicular messages would either risk a fatal road-traffic consequence, or it would reject a significant portion of received messages without authenticating when its maximum verification capacity is reached. The current WAVE standards do not include an efficient anonymous authentication scheme for vehicular messages, or even an intelligent authentication strategy which can efficiently verify from a massive number of vehicular safety/application messages. 5. CONCLUSION The proposed protocol designed an identity-based anonymous user-authentication scheme and a cross-layer verification approach for WAVE-enabled VANETÃ¢â¬â¢s safety messages. A variation of the conventional ECDSA approach is used with the identity-based signature approach where the common geographical area information of signing vehicles is taken as the signerÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. This exempts a vehicle from the mandatory inclusion of a trusted third-party certificate with each broadcast message in a VANET while a user is still identifiable by the trusted third-party up on a dispute. A cross-layer message verification scheme verifies the received messages based on their MAC traffic class and traffic intensity. This ensures that under the rush hour congestion or traffic accident most important messages will not be missed by the verifier. Security analysis and performance evaluation justify our authentication and verification approach for WAVE-enabled vehicular communications. REFERENCES  C. E. Perkins and E. M. Royer, Ã¢â¬Å"Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing,Ã¢â¬ in Proc.2nd IEEE WMCSA 1999.  V. A. Davis, Ã¢â¬Å"Evaluating mobility models within an ad hoc network,Ã¢â¬ M.S. thesis, Colorado Sch. Mines Golden, CO, USA, 2000.  A. Ferreira, Ã¢â¬Å"On models and algorithms for dynamic communication networks: The case for evolving graphs,Ã¢â¬ presented at the 4e rencontres francophones sur les ALGOTEL, Meze, France, 2002.  M. Rudack, M. Meincke, K. Jobmann, and M. Lott, Ã¢â¬Å"On traffic dynamical aspects of inter vehicle communications (IVC),Ã¢â¬ in Proc. IEEE Veh.Technol. Conf., 2003.  H. Menouar, M. Lenardi, and F. Filali, Ã¢â¬Å"A movement prediction-base drouting protocol for vehicle-to-vehicle communications,Ã¢â¬ in Proc. 1st Int.V2V Communication Workshop, San Diego, CA, USA, 2005.  T. Taleb, M. Ochi, A. Jamalipour, N. Kato, and Nemoto Ã¢â¬Å"An efficient vehicle-heading based routing protocol for VANET networks,Ã¢â¬ in Proc.IEEE Wireless Communication ,2006.  G. M. T. Abdalla, M. A. Abu-Rgheff, and S. M. Senouci, Ã¢â¬Å"Current trends in vehicular ad hoc networks,Ã¢â¬ in Proc IEEE Global Inf. Infrastruct.Symp., Marrakech Morocco, 2007.  V. Namboodiri and L. Gao, Ã¢â¬Å"Prediction-based routing for vehicular adhoc networks,Ã¢â¬ IEEE Trans.Veh Technol, 2007.  K. T. Feng, C. H. Hsu, and T. E. Lu, Ã¢â¬Å"Velocity-assisted predictive mobility and location-aware routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks,Ã¢â¬ IEEE Trans Technol, 2008.  J. Monteiro, Ã¢â¬Å"The use of evolving graph combinatorial model in routing protocols for dynamic networks,Ã¢â¬ in Proc. XV Concurso Latinoamericanode Tesis de MaestrÃ ¬a, 2008.  G. Pallis, D. Katsaros, M. D. Dikaiakos, oulloudes and L. Tassiulas,Ã¢â¬Å"On the structure and evolution of vehicular networks,Ã¢â¬ in Proc. IEEE/ACM Meeting Symp. MASCOTS, 2009.  S. C. Ng, W. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Mao, Ã¢â¬Å"Analysis of access and connectivity probabilities in vehicular relay networks,Ã¢â¬ IEEE. Areas Communication, 2011.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
How Do Eye witness Testimonials Affect Jury Decision Making A mock-jury scenario was conducted to evaluate the effects that eye-witness testimonies had on 139 participants. In order to study the true affects the testimonies have on decision making process, eye-witness testimonies were manipulated into 3 different categories (credible eye-witness, discredited eye-witness and no eye-witness). Evidence by the prosecution and defence sides were also presented and were consistent across the three independent variable groups. In the past many theorist felt that inconsistencies in eye-witnesses testimonies have been the cause of many wrongful convictions (Neufeld, 2008; Wagstaff et al., 2003). These past beliefs have resulted in the development of this study and the hypothesis that, having any sort of eye-witness present would cause a dramatic influence in generating more guilty verdicts by the participants. However the study results were found to be inconclusive in supporting our hypothesis and possible reasons for this, as well as future studies w ere discussed. How Do Eye-witness Testimonials Affect Jury Decision Making? In a courtroom, jury members are presented with many forms of evidence in order to help manipulate the decision making process. A commonly used form of evidence that is presented by the prosecution side is called an eye-witness testimony. An eye-witness testimony is an observation that a third party had to a crime or incident that took place. The eye-witness will testify as to what they saw and also try to identify who committed the crime. As stated by Bradfield and Wells (2000), in 1972 in the case of Neil vs Biggers the court declared that for an eye-witness testimony to be valid, 5 criterias had to be met. These were (1) certainty of suspects identification, (2) quality of view the witnesses reports having of the suspect, (3) attention paid to suspect, (4) the degree to which the witnesses description of suspect match that of defendant and (5) time that has elapsed between witnessing crime and identification of suspect. These 5 criteria were later known as the 5 Biggers criteria. According to Rutledge (2001), eye-witness testimonies in most cases are amongst the most important forms of evidence that is presented. However it must be contrasted that although testimonies are an aid for decision making, there is a wide acceptance that eye-witness evidence is frequently unreliable and inaccurate (Neuschatz et al., 2007; Rutledge, 2001). Scholars have theorised that the acceptances of unreliable testimonies by jury members are largely the result of the high confidence level displayed by eye-witness at correctly identifying the suspect, when in fact they were incorrect (Luss Wells, 1994; Wells, Ferguson Lindsay, 1981). A possible cause to explain how these high confidence levels develop in an eye-witness has been linked to what theorist call the feedback effect. It was shown that feedback comments by police such as, well done or good, you identified him during interviewing process, had dramatic effects on the eye-witnesses confidence (Luss Wells, 1994; Wells Bradfield, 1998). Koriat, Lichtenstein and Fischhoff (1980, as cited in Wells, Ferguson Lindsay, 1981), went further and stated that this feedback led to eye-witnesses thinking of reasons that further supported the decision they have made regarding who they identified and the circumstances of the crime they felt they had observed. Rattner (1988, as cited in Bradfield Wells, 2000), further states that acceptance of mistaken identification is the largest single cause of wrongful conviction. Rattners statement was further demonstrated by mock-jury studies undertaken where it was shown that although there were inconsistencies in eye-witness testimonies, the majority of jury members delivered a verdict that the defendant was guilty (Lindsay, Wells OConnor, 1989; Wagstaff et al., 2003). Therefore because of the ever-increasing debate as to the reliability and validity of the statements made and the consequences it has in the jury decision making process, research into eye-witness testimonies is a valuable area of study. In the study it was hypothesised that firstly, having any sort of eye-witness will incur more guilty verdicts over non guilty verdicts. Secondly, it is hypothesised that with the presentation of a witness, the probability or confidence level that the suspect is guilty should increase over that of having no witness. Therefore the more credible a witness is, the more probability the participants should show of having a guilty verdict. Method Participants The study comprised a total of 139 PYB 102 students from Queensland University of Technology. Participants were recruited for this study by means of a consented volunteering process held during a tutorial session. The total number of students comprised of 107 females and 32 males whose age range varied between 17 to 51 years of age. This equates to an average age of 21.8 years and a standard deviation of 7.5 years. Design All participants were presented with an identical argument by the prosecution and defence lawyers, however the information regarding the eye-witness testimony were altered for participants to form 3 different points of view regarding the eye-witness testimony. Therefore, the independent variables in this study were the 3 different arguments that were presented regarding eye-witness testimonies (no eye-witness, discredited eye-witness and a credible eye-witness). The 2 dependent variables which were the outcomes of this study were the guilty or not guilty verdicts and the participants probability (confidence level) at the suspect committing the crime. Material Participants were given a sheet stating the crime scenario with relevant facts about the crime, suspect, circumstances of the arrest and evidence presented to jury in court. Other materials used in this study were pen and paper questionnaire. The questionnaire required a choice between a guilty or non guilty verdict along with a probability of guilt ranking from 0% to 100%. Procedure Each participant received information regarding a crime scenario. Information given, stated how the crime took place and how the suspect was arrested. Participants were also advised by the prosecution side of the evidence that was found in the suspects possession or on suspects hands and shoes. The defence team also presented their side, stating a counter-reason behind the evidence and possessions being claimed by the prosecution side. Participants were also given information regarding eye-witness testimonies. The information regarding eye-witness testimonies were used as an independent variable in the study and were altered into 3 scenarios which affected the accuracy of the testimonies. Group 1 was presented with information that had no eye-witness statements while group 2 was presented with an eye-witness who had witnessed the crime but was not wearing his glasses at the time and was legally declared blind. Group 3 was presented with an eye-witness who claimed to have seen the incident and had no issues regarding his sight. After being presented with all the information, participants were asked to do two separate tasks. Task 1 was a categorical task whereby participant had to select whether they felt the suspect was guilty or not guilty. The second task was to numerically state the probability that the suspect was guilty. This confidence level had a possible value which ranged from 0% probability (absolutely not confident that suspect committed the crime) to 100% probability (absolutely confident the crime was committed by suspect). Results Table 1 shows the decisions made by participants of guilty vs not guilty, while table 2 shows how probable the participants felt the suspect was guilty based on the eye-witness testimonies they were presented. Table 1. Decisions Made by Participants Based on Eye Witness Testimony. Experimental Condition Guilty Not Guilty No witness 15 (33%) 30(67%) Eye-witness 21(45%) 26(55%) Discredited eye-witness 7(15%) 40(85%) Table 2. Probability that Participants Felt Suspect was Guilty Based on Eye-Witness Testimony. Experimental Probability suspect Standard Condition Is Guilty Deviation No witness 45.22 22.36 Eye-witness 50.10 21.93 Discredited eye-witness 36.38 19.24 Discussion Results found that the percentage differences in guilty verdicts across all three groups were statistically significant using a chi-square test of independence which concluded that p = 0.007 existed ( x2 (2, N=139) = 9.94). Also the only probability or confidence level that was shown to be significant using independent sample t-test was only apparent between the difference in the eye-witness group and discredited eye-witness group. It was found that participants had a higher percentage of not guilty votes when presented with either a credible witness or a discredited witness and therefore the first hypothesis has been found to be inconclusive. As stated by Hosch, Beck, and McIntyre (1980), a majority of not guilty verdicts may have been chosen by jurors not because they felt that the defendant was innocent, rather they may have felt the evidence and eye witness testimonies had not proven guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. The second hypothesis was also found to be inconclusive in that although we expected having an eye-witness (discredited or credible) would have a higher probability or confidence level than having no eye-witness, our results contradicted this by showing that the no eye-witness group had more guilty verdicts than the discredited eye-witness group. However, in partial support of the second hypothesis, it must be noted that having a credible eye-witness did produce a higher probability of guilt than having no eye-witness. This outcome could be explained by the fact that participants understood the implications of guilty verdicts based on information which do not prove beyond a reasonable doubt. Another point to note is participants have access to internet websites that highlight information regarding suspects who were originally guilty due to evidence such as eye-witness testimonies, but have been exonerated through DNA testing. As supported on their website by Scheck and Neufeld (2008), eye-witness identification is frequently inaccurate and that eye-witness misidentification is the single greatest cause of wrongful convictions that were overturned through DNA testing. Another study which supports the second hypothesis is summarised by Kennedy and Haygood (1992), who states the discrediting of an eye-witness will undermine any influence the witness had on the decision making process. Limitations of this study included factors such as the study was a theoretical case and hadnt truly represented all factors that would be presented in a real courtroom, this included the limited evidence presented. Another point to note is that because of the theoretical example, participants couldnt incorporate true emotions that jurors felt when presented with in-depth evidence in real court situations such as the violent nature of crimes. Secondly participants with prior exposure to jury exposure may have a different outlook to decision making compared to participants who havent had previous exposure. These limitations could help devise future studies by comparing studies with only non-exposed jury participants against exposed participants. In summary, it has been found that this study was inconclusive to determine if the hypothesis could truly be rejected. Therefore it would be advisable to perform further studies in the future in order to further develop a better understanding on how eye-witness testimonials affect jury decision making process.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Creators and Parasites in The Fountainhead "The creators concern is the conquest of nature. The parasites concern is the conquest of men," Howard Roark states in his dramatic courtroom speech defending himself after the Cortlandt Homes incident. This quote sums up the two categories of people in rather graphic form. The creator, or non-conformist, being glorified in his attempt to better the very earth itself, independent of the constraints of humanity. The parasite, or conformist, being reduced to the lowest of all species, with a selfish goal of ruling man. This is a goal a conformist will never reach because instead of guiding society, the conformist is bound by societies rules. This accurate depiction can be visibly seen in the characters of Howard Roark, Peter Keating, and Ellsworth Tooey. Howard Roark is a creator, and he knows it. Glorifying himself, although not looking for praise, but rather stating something that is as common to him as a fact. A devout anarchist, Roark views nature as something that man must improve upon. He has no desire for anything from mankind, he does not want to be a leader, or even for others to see the world his way, he simply doesn't care about those things. The destruction of the Cortlandt Housing project is a result of a view that any alterations of a creators plans by a mere parasite perverts something sacred. In keeping with this ideal it appears sickening that any person would lower their talents to the level of standard society, even if they do it for the sake of survival. A creator must never compromise, especially to the whims of lemmin... ...; Roark exists untainted by the disease that is conformity, and is all the better for it. The sad truth that parasites, such as Keating and Toohey, strive to control man, which leads both men to misery and eventual ruin. Keating living in his worse nightmare, alone, and exposed as a fraud. Toohey, on the other hand, continues to appear happy to the general public, but silently fights the knowledge that he will never be a creator. In the end the message is clear, to be a creator is to rise above society and evolve nature, without concern for the group pattern. The parasite, however, attempts to rule men, but ends up being prisoner to them. The path Roark followed required strength of character, drive, and endurance that few posses, but if one can survive going against the grain, they can discover true happiness.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Sarcasm and Irony in Swift's A Modest Proposal In his lengthy literary career, Jonathan Swift wrote many stories that used a broad range of voices that were used to make some compelling personal statements. For example, Swifts, A Modest Proposal, is often heralded as his best use of both sarcasm and irony. Yet taking into account the persona of Swift, as well as the period in which it was written, one can prove that through that same use of sarcasm and irony, this proposal is actually written to entertain the upper-class. Therefore the true irony in this story lies not in the analyzation of minute details in the story, but rather in the context of the story as it is written. One of the voices that is present throughout the story is that of irony. The story itself is ironic since no one can take Swifts proposal seriously. This irony is clearly demonstrated at the end of the story; Swift makes it clear that this proposal would not affect him since his children were grown and his wife unable to have any more children. It would be rather absurd to think that a rational man would want to both propose this and partake in the eating of another human being. Therefore, before an analyzation can continue, one has to make the assumption that this is strictly a fictional work and Swift had no intention of pursuing his proposal any further. One of the other voices that is present throughout the entire story is that of sarcasm. In order to understand this further, a reader has to comprehend that Swift, becoming infamous after Gullivers Travels, was a member of the upper-class. Right from the first paragraph Swift attempts to fool his readers by the sarcasm of the dreary scene that Swift presents. For example, he mentions that it is a melancholy sight to see beggars and their children on the street. The sarcastic paradox in this statement is whether it is a melancholy object for him, having to see homeless people every day, or for the beggars lifestyle? Upon first reading this one may be led to believe that Swift is a compassionate writer attempting to feel the pain of the beggars. But as the story continues, a reader can look back and note that he is using a sarcastic tone and the only sad sight that he sees is the fact that people of his status have to deal with commoners.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Is immunity compromised in babies who are formula fed for their first year compared to babies who are breastfed for the first year? Anastasia J. Jorgensen LCC Nursing 165 Is immunity compromised in babies who are formula fed for their first year compared to babies who are breastfed for the first year? Many hospitals are now implementing a Ã¢â¬Å"Baby FriendlyÃ¢â¬ environment in their delivery and mother-baby units. This initiative promotes breastfeeding as the priority feeding method to new mothers and leaves formula feeding by the wayside. Is formula feeding hurting these children or all of the children who have been formula fed up to this point? One study suggests that there is a high use of laxatives in formula-fed infants (Gitte Zachariassen, 2013). While another sets out to prove that formula containing galactose, galactooligosaccharides (GOS) would help reduce infections and allergic manifestations with a prebiotic effect on intestinal microbiota (Carlos Sierra, 2014). Purpose In SierraÃ¢â¬â¢s et al.Ã¢â¬â¢s (2014) article, which reviews the effect of prebioticÃ¢â¬â¢s during the first year of life in formula fed infants, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial is performed to assess the effects of prebiotic supplements on intestinal micro bacteria and the incidence of infections and allergic reactions during the first year of life. In Gitte ZachariassenÃ¢â¬â¢s et al.Ã¢â¬â¢s (2013) article on preterm infant diet and the high use of laxatives among the formula-fed infants, a study was performed to see what the effects of formula were on the infant gastrointestinal system versus infants who were given breastmilk along with formula and breastmilk alone. This study included the number of meals given, number and amount of regurgitation, number of stools, and amount of laxatives used daily. Summary of Studies1 Population. The first study, Carlos Sierra et al. (2014), consisted of infants less than 2 months old and healthy term infants from eight Spanish hospitals. These infants ranged in gestational age of 37 to 42 weeks and weighed more than 2500 grams. The infants were then placed into different groups to monitor the effects of the different food given whether it was formula or breastmilk. In the next study, Gitte Zachariassen et al. (2013), parents of very preterm infants (Ã regarding breastfeeding is important but I believe that more information should be provided about formula feeding and the problems that can occur. Specifically, I think parents should be informed that their infant could be more irritable because they are gassy or constipated if they are only formula fed, this may deter some parents from the use of formula or at least encourage them to supplement with breastmilk. I also think that they should be informed that breastfeeding, while it does contribute to passive immunity, is not the only way to keep your infant healthy. Formula, while more convenient to use at times, is not going to make your infant less healthy but it will not increase their immunity eith er. References Carlos Sierra, M.-J. B.-I.-L.-M. (2014). Prebiotic effect during the first year of life in healthy infants fed formula containing GOS as the only prebiotic: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind and placeboi-controlled trial. Springerlink.com, 11. Gitte Zachariassen, J. F.-G. (2013). Preterm dietary study: meal frequency, regurgitation and the surprisingly high use of laxatives among formula-fed infants following discharge. ACTA Paediatrica, 7.
Everyone in the United States wants to achieve the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ . People want to be able to provide a stable lite tor their families. A college education has been a must to grow in the work industry. But during this economic recession, college students have been having a difficult time staying in the college path, especially working class students. The lack of moral support from their families prevents these unfortunate students to finish their college education. The increase of college tuition and limited financial ald are causing students to go Into debt, making them hesitant hether they should keep studying or not.Also it's preventing students from picking needed major but because the low paycheck they are not sure if they will be able to be sustained. But college drop outs also can able be due to the unequal college preparation given in high schools. The education system needs to be reformed so students have the opportunity to choose whether they want to go to coll ege or do vocational tralnlng Instead. A college degree Is bringing more negauve aspects Into a student's life therefore students, especially from working class. must know the alternatives to be able to succeed.Most ot the students In the united states are middle or working class. In addltlon of going to school, working class students also have to get a Job to be able to help out their families. Working class students have always struggled to get by during their years in college but most ot these students have families who support their dreams of coming out of poverty and become somebody with no pressures However there are also students who lack family support and deal with these issues alone throughout college. According to the New York Times article For Poor, Leap to CollegeOften Ends in a Hard Fall, Ã¢â¬Å"Likely reasons [that low income students drop out of college] include soaring Incomes at the top and changes in family structure, which have left fewer low-income students with the support of two-parent homesÃ¢â¬ . These working class students have to find out their way out of college by themselves, sometimes feeling isolated and Intlmlddted by the system. Feeling under the pressure of obtaining a college degree to benefit their families they find themselves often in debt, not knowing about other options out there.Congress should start more unding towards higher education so students who truly want to conunue with college can do so without increasing their debts, Due budget cuts In education, the amount of financial aid is limited for students therefore it is more difficult to pay for their education. In the past decade college tultlon fees have been Increasing and soon enough students are not being able to receive full financial aid for their college education.Financial aid is supposed to help those students who fall below the poverty line, but since the recession hit the united states more middle class students re finding themselves in a bad situation . In the article No Aid for You: Cheating the Middle Class, Jennifer Hutchinson says Ã¢â¬Å"Due to this large increase In tuition, middle class families can no longer attord to pay tor their child's education, putting them in the same situation as the low-income studentsÃ¢â¬ . Not qualifying for grants these students take tne oTTerea loans ana every year tne amount 0T aeot Increases.Hutchinson also states that Ã¢â¬Å"However, unlike low-income studentsÃ¢â¬ ¦ who could not afford college, instead of going out into the workforce after graduation, middle-class tudents are now expected to go on to collegeÃ¢â¬ . Nowadays a college degree is needed to get a decent paying Job and the competition for Jobs is increasing among the young college graduates. If the financial aid system is not reformed soon there is going to be more students having to leave their college education behind when no longer can go into debt. College should become cheaper so the students won't have to choose betwe en their passions versus their stability.With their debts increasing every year students are researching if their majors are worth it to pay back their debts and be able to sustain them. According to the State Public Interest Research Group's Higher Education Project, Ã¢â¬Å"23 percent of students who graduate from public universities would face unmanageable debt burdens if they entered teaching based upon average starting salaries. Ã¢â¬ Loans are causing college students to stay away from majors that won't have a beneficial because these majors will not have an income strong enough to hold on to.Although these students want to study something that will essentially benefit the whole society they won't be able to do so unless there is a change in the college system. Even though students are told they have to go to college, students are often found to give up as soon as they walk in the campus because they feel they are not ready for college. They try to take classes but they leave feeling overwhelmed by either the content of the class or their lack of enthusiasm to be in the classroom. In the article Why Do So Many Americans Drop Out of College? Jordan Weissman says Ã¢â¬Å"But once they get to class, not every student is prepared. Nor do they necessarily want to be at college, or have a clear notion of what they're doing thereÃ¢â¬ ¦ The economy is screaming that they need a degree. But once on campus, they don't last. Ã¢â¬ These students do not have an idea of what to make of their college education and waste resources such as classes and funds. College preparedness should start since high school. Students should also know if they are ready to take on the challenge of a college education.There should be a tougher way for students to be selected into four year institutions. Colleges should be stricter with grades once students reach high school. Also there is the importance of high school counselors working with students to help them find out what they tr uly want to do ith their life. It could help them decide if college is a place they want to be at or instead seek vocational training after high school, preventing students dropping out of college and insures that those obtaining a vocational training gain the skills to enter the work force.Students have to know the other options out there besides college. The United States needs to establish more vocational schools so that those who choose not to go to college can also succeed in the work force. As many other countries have shown, vocational training can be beneficial to the whole society. The vocational schools we ave already have shown to be mostly effective for those people who need a Job fast to sustain their families.By being able to get hands-on training, these students have more ability to qualify for a Job right away than a college graduate because they have experience in that certain field. According to the article The Secret To Germany's Low Youth Unemployment Ã¢â¬Å"Germ any's youth employment is the highest in EuropeÃ¢â¬ ¦ At the neart 0T tnat success Is a learn-on-tne-JoD apprentlcesnlp system tnat nas I ts roots In the Middle Ages but is thriving today in Germany's modern, export-oriented conomy'. These students can choose between a vocational or academic career though many chose the vocational training.Through internships, the youth are in training earning weekly wages. In order for the United States to become successful in recovering from the recession more vocational schools have to be implemented around the country so there can be equal opportunities for those who do not want to go to college. The college system in the United States needs work. Students are feeling lost without moral support from their families. Limited financial aid is forcing more low nd middle class students to go into debt in order to continue their college education.High schools need to start preparing their students for the years ahead in college. But most importantly it is showing that college is not the only option available for students who know they cannot make it through the years. People need to start realizing that college is not for everyone and that vocational schools can be a positive way to increment work force in this country. Vocational schools are also successful in creating educated people. In the long run there will be a positive outcome for students in their future lives.
Friday, August 16, 2019
The Fakeer of Jungheer is a long poem by Henry Louis Vivian Derozio. He was born on 18th April, 1809 in Kolkatta, West Bengal. He was a lecturer and poet. He is considered to be an academic and educator During his time Literary Movement of Bengal Renaissance was undergoing. He was an Indian poet and assistant head principal at the Hindu College of kolkatta. He was a radical thinker and one of the first Indian educators to disseminate western Education and science among the young men of Bengal. He died of Cholera at the age of 22. Long after his death, his influence lived among his former student, who came to be known as young Bengal and many of whom became prominent in social reform law and journalism. Inspired by the scenic beauty of the river Ganga, he started writing poetry. He was generally considered an Anglo-Indian being of mixed partuguese desent, but he was fired by patriotic spirit for his native Bengal and considered himself Indian. He wrote many wonderful poems in English before his untimely death of which. The Fakeer of Jungheera was one of the most important landmark in the history of patriotic poetry in India. As he considered India to be his mother he worried about Indian social, political and religious problem. He also worried about the class and caste discrimination. In his days Bengal faced many problems of caste and creed. The reassessment and inclusion of Derozio in the canon of Derozio in the canon of Indian writing in English has to do with many factors, like communism, religious aspects, colonial aspects. In Ã¢â¬ËThe Fakeer of JungheeraÃ¢â¬â¢ Deroiz mixed the tantric, Hindu, Mythological, Islamic and Cristian tradition. He got the idea about writing the poem of spiritual love from Baital Pachisi. As the story goes, if King Vikram remains stead fast in his love for his queen he can resurrect her and once more both can find happiness together. The dauntless fortitude and courage that The King exemplifies by passing through the horrible ordeals in the graveyard leading to h is triumph, inspire conclusion to the tragic death of the Fakeer in the arms of his beloved Nuleeni. If the Nuleeni can again be resurrected in the arms of the Fakeer if she can pass through the horrors and temptations of life. Fakeer and Nuleeni are two star crossed lovers like Romeo and Juliet. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Romeo and Juliet were the children of two enemies whose love brought the tragic end. Here, in Ã¢â¬ËThe Fakeer of JangheeraÃ¢â¬â¢. Fakeer is the follower of Islam. Fakeer means saint a person who has renounced the world but here he loves a lady Nuleeni who is married and also an uppercaste Female. Nuleeni was married to a Brahmin. Her husband dies in an early youth. Naleeni, the beloved of Fakeer never loved her husband. In the days of never loved her husband. In the days of Henry Derozio Indian subcontinent was cought by many evils like Ã¢â¬ËSati PrathaÃ¢â¬â¢ killing girl child by boiling the still born baby in the hot pot of milk etc. Nuleeni belonged to a conservative Hindu society in the nineteenth century. She was pure and beautiful she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t went to end her life behind a person whom she never loved. Nuleeni was brought to the spot where her husband is to be cremated. Women were singing songs praising sati. They sang of going to heaven but poor Nuleeni was lost in the thoughts of Fakeer. She refuses to die on the funeral pure of her husband and esapes with the bandit faker to his cave in Jungheera to a life from death; She escaped death but she starts a life of forbidden love though frightened by violent social norms she believes that her loverÃ¢â¬â¢s courage and her anfailing love will finally make them victorious. Her fair and beautiful face brightens the dark social setting of the poem and mitigates the bold audacity of the Fakeer who snatches her from the midst of a group of mourning upper caste Hindu at the Funeral. In the intense bond of love they forgot the society. They forgot their caste discrimination. They forget strength of power. They Forgot strength of power. They Challenged the man made norms of the society. Both of them completely forgot themselves and did not realize that their lives were at risk. Fakeer, bravely snatched her from the hands of so called upper-class people. Would they tolerate this insult of taking away of female by weaker sect. Here, the brave rebellion of the weaker sect draws the attention to the inequality of the sexes and social malaise rampant in Bangali Society of the time. In can say that the poem makes an important stage in the use of social themes in literary texts endorsing a syncretistic tradition quite popular in 19th century Bengal. Instead of be laboring upon the misery of slavery, Derozio embarked upon a mission of resolving some of the inherent evils of Hindu society especially the practice of widow burning. The romantic atmosphere is raise due to the development of Hindu-Muslim love affair. The Fakeer of Jungheera is in two cantos of twenty eight and twenty four stanzas respectively written in the iambic, anapestic, trochaic and dactylic meters to suit the different rhythems ranging from the normal spoken voice and slow description to the racy battles and the chant of priests and women. The poem starts with natureÃ¢â¬â¢s description and then takes many twists. The poem deals with many ser ious issues of social evil along with the tragic love affir as the protagonist of the poem is a robber Fakeer who belongs to some unidentified Muslim sect, While the heroine, the widow Nuleeni, comes from an upper caste Bengali Hindu family. Derozio uses Cristain Imagery, Such as heaven and angles flitting about. He juxtaposes this imagery against the Hindu tradition of sati and muslim prayers. He imitates the English Romantic poets like wordsworth, shelly and Coleridge. In the poem, the imagination is marvelous. Derozio breaks all the norms of writing of the contemporary poem writing. It was not easy for the contemporary writers to break the established laws and at the same time challenging the upper-class of the cosecant. He wanted to eradicate the social evils that slowly swallowed the society. This Hindu-Muslim love story arose great sensation. The poet was marginalized in his time. The poet paints the heroine as a Ã¢â¬ËperfectÃ¢â¬â¢ Bengali beauty Ã¢â¬â with large black eyes, black in braided tresses, a pale lily complexion and majestic walk. When she arrives at the funeral her eyes searched somebody when he comes she escapes with. He, her lover Fakery had to fight before taking his beloved with him. At the F akeerÃ¢â¬â¢s cave. Nuleeni and he lived very happily. They both are lost in the materialistic. They both are lost in the materialistic imaginative life. They are lost in their world. But Nuleeni in the midst of happy life always feared of some unseen danger. Here, the midst of happy life always feared of some unseen danger. Here, the description of nature seems to be one with the feeling of the love. The first canto of the poem mainly deals with the fantastic description of nature, the funeral procession of a Bengali upper-class Hindu familyÃ¢â¬â¢s son, the escape of the widow with her faker lover to his cave. The upper-class widow lived with many maid lives happily in the cave of her Fakeer lover always waiting for something unseen to harm them. She smelt something wrong. She worried for she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to depart from her lover at any cost. Many a times through the poetry we see her lost in her world, sometime. We see Fakeer lost in his dreamland. As happens in ancient Greek tragedies and Shakespearean tragedies, their tragic doom and mistake of risking their life were waiting for them. As they were run-away lovers NuleeniÃ¢â¬â¢s father Ã¢â¬â the so called upper-class widowÃ¢â¬â¢s father would definitely revenge him. Now, Derozio sees love between a Hindu and a Muslim as transcending religion, though this could be DerozioÃ¢â¬â¢s own atheistic vision of religion categories based on his rationalistic temper. There was a hardening of identity of Bengali Muslims in the subcontinent as Islam provided Ã¢â¬Ëa sense of belongingÃ¢â¬â¢ to the Muslim community. In the absence of powerful Muslim leadership in 19th century Bengal, the ulema emerged as the leaders. Britishers were partial too. On one hand the prohibited sati system on the other hand they allowed being sati with permission. The hardening of religious categories in colonial Bengali lays the ground for the inevitable conflict that ensues in the second canto. In the beginning of the canto the end lies. The popular belief that love for a woman can lead any god-fearing young man away from the worship of Allah. Then starts the tragic events one by one. The father of beautiful widow Nuleeni determines to avenge Fakeer. He goes to Shah Shiva the king of his time. He requests him to send his army with him to avenge the Fakeer. The uncertainty of life and death begins at this stage. NuleeniÃ¢â¬â¢s father comes to the place where the lovers lived with the army to avenge his insult. He did not even think of his daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness or love. Now Fakeer has no choice, if he runs away from the battle field. He would be caught and punished. He decides to fight back the army of NuleeniÃ¢â¬â¢s father. The story at this point becomes somewhat sketchy but the robber Fakeer decides to make a lost stand and fight. However Nuleeni fears that the dubious hour might bring doom : Let me warn the that our doom so bright may darkly end Ã¢â¬â as darkly speeds the night Ã¢â¬â But the Fakeer is confident of Victory. Ere long IÃ¢â¬â¢ll worn thee in my breast again Ã¢â¬â With the Ã¢â¬Ëbattle cryÃ¢â¬â¢ of Ã¢â¬Ëthe moslem ringing afarÃ¢â¬â¢ to fight the Ã¢â¬Ëroyal cavalryÃ¢â¬â¢, he is mortally wounded with a lance. Nulleeni cradles him in her arms and dies together with him Ã¢â¬â he Ã¢â¬Ëeloquence had all burned outÃ¢â¬â¢. She becomes a free agent to choose her destiny; she prefers to die together with someone she loves than with her husband whom she does not. In ancient India woman were allowed to choose their life partners on their own. In our Epics sita, Rukmani, Sati, Parvati (The incarmation of Sati) Draupadi, Subhadra, Kunti, Gandhari, Sanyogita etc. Choose their husband on their own. In absence of Pritiviraj Chauhan Sanyogita put garland on his statue and took her with him Ã¢â¬â such was grand and glorious past culture of India which was ruined due to foreign invasion. Nuleeni did not die behind her husband. Now, she is free here to die with Fakeer. She did not die with her husband because she did not love him but she loved Fakeer beyond anything else in the world. For him she left all the luxuries of her life, He also risked his life to be united but they were doomed to depart. Nuleeni decides to die behind him. The Sanskrit word sati means a Ã¢â¬Ëgood and vitreous womanÃ¢â¬â¢ who was truly devoted to her husband. And according to the Hindu tradition these virtues found expression is the ultimate act of self-immdation. Women who sacrificed themselves continued to be called sati long after they were dead and usage of the term Ã¢â¬Ëto the sacrifice alone, the act as well as the agent. The secular and universal ideas that Derozio espoused in his poetry do not go well with the separatist and divisionary politics of modern India. These are some of the revisionist consequences of modernity. However, the Ã¢â¬Ëmodes of social lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ that emerged in the early nineteenth century in response to modernity in India now take us Ã¢â¬Ëbeyond modernityÃ¢â¬â¢ into the information age. If India must shine it must do so within its own traditions and Derozio occupies a central place in it. The poet through the impossible and bold story of love Ã¢â¬â affair between Hindu upper-class widow and a Muslim lower class Fakeer reflected and criticized the evils of Indian Society.